Genetic markers is the DNA fragment or gene witch known region on chromosome witch used to purpose for identification of species or individuals. they can be detect fro the naked eyes (naked eyes polymorphism), as differences in electrophoretic mobiity of species proteins , or ans differences in specific DNA sequences (detectable as RFLP or differential amplification by PCR).
Naked eye polymorphism (NEP)– they genetic markers witch inheritance can be followed with the naked eyes made up to naked eye polymorphism. the traits in this group include are plant height, shape , flower colors, etc.
Proteins based markers- these are detected as electrophoretic variants of proteins. usually variants of enzymes called isozymes, are used as markers. but variants in the molecular weight or isoelctric point of structural proteins , an also be used genetic markers.
DNA markers- by restriction enzyme digestion of genomic DNA could be used as genetic markers. DNA markers represent the primary method of genetic mapping. eg. RFLP (Restriction fragment length polymorphism), AFLP ( Amplified fragment length polymorphism).
some genetic markers are-
- SFP (Single feature polymorphism)
- VNTR (Variable number tandem repeat)
- RAD markers (Restriction site associated DNA markers)
- Microsatellite polymorphism, SSR (Simple sequence repeat)
- SNP (Single nucleotide polymorphism)
- STR (Short tandem repeat)
- DArT ( Diversity Arrays Technology)
1.They are highly polymorphic, easily identifiable used to determine genetic distance between individual or population.
2.To study the relationship between an inherited disease and its genetic cause. used to identify the precise inheritance pattern of the DNA fragment that has not yet been exactly localized.
3.They also used to create genetic maps of an individual organism to study.
they also been used to determine the genomic response to selection in any livestock.
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