Somatic hybridization is a efficient way to produce hybrids (cells & plants) by fusion of two different protoplast from different plants or species or varieties, and hybrids witch produced by this way called somatic hybrids. in other side we can also use somatic fusion, protoplast fusion like terms for this process.
Aim of somatic hybridization is in improvement of crop plants or medicinal plant or many other type of plant. improvement purpose may be to modify species by disease resistance, improve to quality, quantity, or other for example potato plant (solanum tuberosum) making resistant to potato leaf rolling disease.
Basic- in this procedure making two different protoplast by removal of cell wall by using cellulase, pectinase, like enzyme. these enzymes removed to cell wall by hydrolysis. after isolation of protoplast performed to fusion of both protoplast cells. that performed by help of polyethylene glycol treatment, electro fusion, and high pH and calcium treatment. but most effective method is use of poly ethylene glycol (PEG). than in last selected to hybrid cells, after a successful fusion in medium present unfused cells, or self fused cells( two same protoplast fused), so for this many technique used to isolate real hybrid cells from mixture of all type of cells.
Benefits-somatic hybridization is very useful for those plant witch is asexual or sterile. and that is also beneficial for those plant witch has sexual incompatibility with other species. that technique also useful for study to cytoplasmic genes, and its performance.
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