AGRICULTURE AND FOREST BIOTECH.
Agriculture Biotechnology- In the twentieth century, breeding became more sophisticated, as the traits that breeders select for include increased yield, pestdisease and disease resistance, drought resistance and enhanced benifical ?avor. Traits are passed from one to next generation by genes, which are made of genome. All living things that we eat—contain genes that tell cells how to function. Recently, researchers have learned enough to begin to identify and work with the genes (DNA) that are responsible for traits. Agricultural biotechnology is a collection of scienti?c techniques applicable to improve plants, animals and microbs. Based on an understanding of DNA, experts have developed ways to increase agricultural productivity. Starting from the ability to identify genes that may confer benifits on certain crops, and the ability to work with such characteristics very precisely, biotech. increase breeders’ ability to make improv in crops and livestock. Biotechnology enables modify that are not possible with traditional crossing of related species alone.
Forest Biotechnology- Biotechnology has advanced to where we can research biological systems at the gene level, and even sequence entire genomes. This feat was accomplished through years of discovery in plant and agricultural life sciences. While we can sequence a human’s genome today, it is not as simple for some trees. eg, a representative conifer (pine tree) genome is many times larger than a human’s ; the Loblolly pine’s genome is seven times larger. Such a feat has yet to be accomplished in whole, but the Pine Genome initiative is working towards this aim to grow future biofuel production from pine trees, improve forest health, and gain insight into plant evolution. As we consider the spectrum of strategy that can be considered forest biotechnologies, it is useful to split out two general groups: genetic engineering technologies and breeding technologies.
The current definition of forest biotechnolology any means of creating or using living organisms to improve or alter or producea product or organism for a specified goal, which would include animal domestication and prehistoric plant. A more current perspective specifies biotechnology having commercial uses, featuring deliberate manipulation of the genetic components of living organisms (Iowa State University 1994). These definition, although accurate for the specific purposes for which they were intended, contribute to the prevalent confusion surrounding biotechnology and in specific forest biotechnology. In some cases, biotechnology is associated with genetic modification, and in others it can be used to define a broad spectrum of modern methods applicable to forest science.
“The use of the complete or targeted portions of organisms to provide quantitative information and/or desired products, including the sepration and/or manipulation of specific genetic components of that specific organism”.
This would encompass both conventional animal or plant breeding as well as more current developments which focus on only a part of a biological system. The main reason for the proposed new definition is to clearly diffrent the part that is based on the generation of information and products without the intentional deliberate genetic manipulation from those process that are exclusively require genetic modification. This strategy is helpful in-light of Stone (2002) termed as the “global war of rhetoric” in mid supporters and opponents of food and agriculture biotechnology.
The subject agriculture and forest biotechnology is divided in to two major sections to suit to study witch describe below-
Section A- conventional methods for forest trees and agriculture crops. Crop improvement: pedegree breeding, heterosis breeding mutation breeding. Tissue culture in crop improvement , micropropagation for virus free palnts, somoclonal variations, haploids in plant breeding, somatic hybridization. Gentic engineering for incresing crop productivity by manipulation of photosynthesis, nitrogen fixiation, nutrient uptake efficency.genetic engineering for biotic stress tolerance: insects., fungi , bacteria, weeds, and viruses.etc.
Sectrion B- genetic engineering for abiotic stress, : drought, flooding, temprature and salt. Genetic engineering for quality improvement: protiens, lipids, carbohydrates, vitamins, and minaral nutrients. Plant as bioreactor, molecular breeding , constructing molecular map, molecular tagging of gene traits. Marker assisted selction of quantitative and qualitative, traits, physical map of chromosome, the concept of gene synteny, the concept of map based cloning and their use in transgenics.
BOOKS AND JOURNALS-
These books is a comprehensive reference works on agricultural biotechnology. It brings together the principles and contemporary of agricultural biotechnology. Topics such as history and scope of agricultural biotechnology,crop improvement, plant tissues culture, techniques of genetic modification, production of transgenic crops etc. are dealt with comprehensively. current biotechnology has great potential to affcted and benefit agriculture. Highly useful publication for biotechnologistsand for agriculture scientists.
Some important book and journals are-
1. Plant Biotechnology and Agriculture biotechnology: Prospects for the 21st Century by Arie Altman and Paul Michael
Hasegawa (Nov 22, 2011)
2. Plant Breeding and Biotechnology: Societal Context and the Future of Agriculture by Denis Murphy(Sep 24, 2007)
3. Corporate Crops: Biotechnology, Agriculture, and the Struggle for Control by Gabriela Pechlaner(Dec 1, 2012)
4. Tomatoland: How Modern Industrial Agriculture Destroyed Our Most Alluring Fruit by Barry Estabrook(Apr 24, 2012)
5. Introduction to forest biotechnology: An Agricultural Revolution by Ray V Herren (Dec 16, 2003)
6. Genetic Modification and manipulation of Plants: Agriculture, Horticulture and Forestry (Biotechnology in Agriculture
and Forestry... by Frank Kempken and Christian Jung (Feb 4, 2010)
7. Plants, Genes Biotechnology by Maarten J. Chrispeels and David E. Sadava (Jul 2, 2002)
FOREST BIOTECHNOLOGY RESEARCH-
The deep benefits of plant biotechnology in forestry are perhaps even more than in agriculture because of the possibility of gaining time in certain tree improvement processes. The challenges facing foresters or experts regarding production or outturn, whether of wood and or other products, are no less urgent than those facing scientists. Tree improvement research falls into two major categories: one is supportive research, e.g. the collection of data on reproductive biology and genetics necessary to support effective breeding; and strategic research, aimed at the development of better breeding methods. Many strategic research projects concerning biotechnology have been initiated, in the opinion of some at the expense of other urgently required tree improvement activities. Clearly, the careful prioritization of research aim is important and biotechnologies should only be used where there is an intimate basic knowledge of the species being experimented. Nonetheless, if basic biological knowledge are available and if sound tree growing programmes are in place, biotechnology can be a more powerful tool. This analysis is directed towards the definition of important biotechnological research priorities in forest plant improvement.some orgnization witch working for forest and agrculture research are-
The ESF Group
Agriculture biotechnology is a improving field of study that has many potential significance for human kind and our environment. In with to the traditional uses of wood products, cellulose from trees is being used as a feedstock to the chemical and pharmaceutical industries, currently supplementing, but in the future possibly replacing fossil fuels. Biomass from plants will be increasingly used as a renewable energy source, as well as a control global warming. Because many species of forest plants have extensive and perennial root systems, and transpire large amounts of water, they are excellent for use in phytoremediation (i.e. the cleanup of polluted soils). Lastly, trees are keystone species in many environments and are necessary for the maintenance of healthy forests and for restoration of damaged ecosystems. Research into their biology and into ways to use and improved the specific qualities of plants species is essential to our safe future.
The mission of the organisation is to:
· Perform cutting edge research that will improvbed our understanding of forest plant biology and lead to growing productivity and biodiversity of our forested.
· Educate and train experts at the graduate, and postdoctoral levels in the uses of biochemistry, molecular biology, and genetic engineering strategy to the study of forest plant species and other organisms relevant to ecology, forest productivity, conservation.
· Improved communication and collaboration among SUNY-ESF faculty, staff, and students witch in forest biotechnology research, other academic and agency researchers.
· boost the programs in forest biotechnology at SUNY-ESF across national and internationally.
Umeå plant science center-
The Umeå Plant Science Centre, one of the good research environments for basic plant research in Europe. The researchers at the centre are working in parallel with two primary model species, the annual herb Arabidopsis thaliana and the perennial plant Populus. Their growth patterns different but despite this it is now clear that Arabidopsis and Populus express only minor genetic changes. Therefore the studies provide a tool for understanding the genetic basis for differences in mid of phenotypically divergent species.
That Started in 1985 and now meeting for the about 16th time, the International Union of Forest Research Organization (IUFRO) Tree Biotechnology 2013 Conference has established a solid tradition for over 20 years as the official meeting of the IUFRO working group 2.04.06 – Molecular biology of forest plants. The Conference is the premier international venue for presenting and discussing new dioscovries and ideas for today and future research in plant genetics, genomics. The IUFRO plant Biotechnology 2013 Conference will be held in Asheville (NC, USA), and is being co-chaired by J. Dean (University of Georgia) and M. Kirst (University of Florida).
FOREST BIOTECHNOLOGY INSTITUTE-
The Forestry and Agricultural Biotechnology Institute (FABI)- was started in 1997 and is located on the University of Pretoria campus. Aim of the institute is to help the improvent of novel food and fibre crops, that will clearly contribute to global food security and economic development. FABI was involved in 2011 in the completion of the eucalyptus plant genome (Eucalyptus grandis).
FABI, the Forestry and Agricultural Biotechnology Institute, at the University of Pretoria, is a postgraduate research institute that was established in 1997, based on a recognition that the future of forestry and agriculture in South Africa will strongly depend on the incorporation of new and emerging technologies into these industries. Major opportunities for these industries have emerged in recent times, from the applications of biotechnology and bioinformatics, amongst many others. FABI scientists undertake goal-directed research, in partnership with major players in the forestry and agricultural sectors in South Africa and in so doing, promote both human capital and industrial development in the country. Staff at the University of Pretoria linked to FABI have also had long-term associations with the fruit tree industry as well as with many other programmes linked to agricultural and forestry crops. Since its establishment, FABI has grown rapidly. FABI is made up of about 180 people including, approximately 15 academic staff, 100+ postgraduate (Hons, MSc, PhD) students, postdoctoral fellows, research visitors, and a small core of technical and support staff. Approximately 30 languages are spoken by members of the FABI Team, illustrating a remarkably multinational and multicultural group.
The Institute of Forest Biotechnology (IFB)- is the only organization to address the sustainability of forest biotechnology on a global scale. With the help of our Sponsors and Partners, we bring diverse stakeholders together to address societal, environmental, and economic aspects of forest biotechnology. Our forests are under pressure from population growth, global trade, invasive threats, and improved demand on natural resources. The IFB supports responsible significance of forest biotechnology that benefit peoples and the environment through science, and stewardship.
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