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                          ANIMAL BIOTECHNOLOGY

 

 

 

 

 

            

 

 

 

 

 

INTRODUCTION

 

 

      Animal cell have been and are being used to generate valuable products based on their own genetic information or due to genes transferred into them (transgenes) using recombinant DNA technology. On the other hand , biotechnological approaches are used either to rapidly multiply animals of desired genotype or to introduce specific alterations in their genotype to achieve certain useful goals, in order to achieve the latter more efficiently, as well as to assist in conventional breeding efforts, the entire genome of animals are being characterized and sequenced using biotechnology tools. These activities have been arbitrarily grouped under Animal biotechnology since they either utilize animal cells to generate products or apply biotechnological tools to enhance the usefulness of animals to human welfare. The product from animal cell cultures are primarily used for human health care and many of them are related to the immune system. Therefore, we shall consider the immune system in some detail before we the various other aspects of animal biotechnology. The foundation of animal cell and tissue culture were laid at the beginning of the present century, when cell could be shown to survive and divide in-vitro (jolly, 1903). The true beginning of animal cell and tissue culture was however, made by Ross Harrison (1907), by using frog as a source of tissue. Alenis Carrel (1912) used tissue and embryo extract as culture media. For about 50 years, mainly tissue explants rather than cell was used for culture technique, although later after1950s, mainly dispersed cell culture were utilized.  As in plants, the terms ‘cell culture’ ‘tissue culture’ and ‘organ culture’ are commonly used for animal material also. However, for animals if the explants maintain its structure and function in culture, it is described as an ‘organotypic culture’ and if cells in culture re-associate   to create a three dimensional structure, irrespective of the tissue from witch it was derived, it is described as histolytic culture.

 

 

     Animal biotechnology produced to transgenic animals witch has the major role in biotechnology field. a transgenic animal contain in its genome a gene or genes introduced by one or the other technique of transfect ion. The gene introduced by transfect ion is called transgene. In animals, transfection specifies the introduction of a DNA segment, either naked or integrate into a vector, into an animal cell. It may be pointed out that the same phenomenon is known as transformation in all others organisms. However, in case of animals, transformation has long been used to describe the change of normal, i.e. nontumourous, cells in culture to tumour like cells. Therefore, it became necessary to use the term transfection to avoid confusion. Transfection may be transient or permanent. In transient transfection, the introduced gene is gradually lost from the daughter cells of tranfected cells. But in case of stable transfection, the introduced gene is retained and expressed in all the cells derived from the tranfected cells. Since most of the animal vectors are unstable, i.e., are gradually lost, in the extra chromosomal state, stable transfections are ordinarily due to the integration of introduced gene into the cell genome.

 

 

 

HISTORY AND REVIEW

 

 

     Prior to the development of molecular genetics, the only way of studying the regulation and function of mammalian genes was through the observation of inherited characteristics or spontaneous mutations. Long before Mendel and molecular genetic knowledge, selective breeding was a common practice among farmers for the enhancement of chosen traits, e.g., increased milk production, during the 1970s, the first chimeric mice were produced. The cells of two different embryos of different strains were combined together at an early stage of development to form a single embryo that subsequently developed in to a chimeric adult, exhibiting characteristics of each strain. The mutual contribution of development biology and genetic engineering permitted rapid development of the techniques for the creation of transgenic animals. The potential of genetic engineering to improve agricultural animals has been much discussed since Palmiter and colleagues first demonstrated that the phenotype of a mouse could be changed by the addition of a transgene in 1982. DNA microinjection, the first technique to prove successful in mammals, was first applied to mice and than to various other species such as rats, rabbits, sheep, birds, pigs, and fish. Two other main techniques were than developed; those of retrovirus- mediated transgenesis and embryonic stem (ES) cell –mediated gene transfer. Since 1981, when the term transgenic was first used by J.W. Gordon and F.H. Ruddle, there has been rapid development in the use of genetically engineered animals as investigators have found an increasing number of applications for the technology.

 

 

     Kholer and Milstein in 1975 were the first to report on the production of monoclonal antibodies. Over 25 years ago, kholer and Milstein described their outstanding work on the fusion of immune spleen cells with myeloma cells to produce hybridomas that secrete monoclonal antibodies, this hybridoma technology, for witch these authors were awarded a Nobel Prize, has infiltrated virtually all areas of biology and medicine and has set the scene for impressive advances in the field of cell biology and immunodiagnostics. And the beginning of the animal tissue culture can be traced to 1880 when Arnold showed that leucocytes can divide outside the body. Later in 1903, jolly studied the behavior of animal tissue explants immersed in serum, lymph or ascites fluid. Harrison cultured frog tadpole spinal chord in a lymph drop hanging from a cover slip into the cavity of a microscopic slide; this is regarded as the turning point in animal tissue culture. Subsequently in 1913, carrel developed a complicated methodology for maintain cultures free from contamination, especially by bacteria, subsequently, suitable culture media were developed and the techniques of cell culture were refined.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

ANIMAL BIOTECH IN BRIEF AND TOPICS

 

 

     Animal biotechnology is a major field of biotechnology witch is completed in a deep description. There are many several points to study animal biotech in briefly.-

 

     Animal tissue culture, historical background, the application of tissue culture, terminology, stages in cell culture, outline of the key techniques of animal cell culture, setting up the laboratory, culturing cells, maintaining the culture, quantification of cells in cell culture, cloning and selecting cell lines, physical methods of cell separation, hazards and safety in the cell culture laboratory, animal cell culture media, media deign, natural media, synthetic media, further considerations in media formulations, nutritional components of media, the role of serum in cell culture, choosing a medium for different cell type, characterization of cell lines, species verification, intra- species contamination, characterization of cell type and stage if differentiation, microbial contamination, preservation of animal cell lines, variation and instability in cell lines, preservation of these cell lines, freezing of cells, quantification of cell viability, cell banks, hybridism’s, the limitations of traditional antibody preparations, the basis of hybridoma technology, the details of hybridoma technology, long term storage of hybridoma cell lines. Contamination, hybridomas from different species, human hybridomas, commercial scale production of monoclonal antibodies, large scale animal cell culture, culture parameters, scale up of anchorage- dependent cells, suspension culture.

 

 

 

IMPORTANCE

 

     In vitro fertilization and embryo transfer techniques have permitted childless couples, suffering from one or the other kind of sterility, to have their own babies (test tube babies). Hormone- induced super-ovulation and/or embryo splitting coupled with embryo transfer can be used for rapid multiplication of farm animals, particularly cattle. Genetic engineering is being employed to developed transgenic animals resistance to produce certain valuable biochemical’s and to excrete them in milk, urine or blood from witch they can be isolated and purified (animal biotechnology, the last case is also called molecular farming). In medical research, transgenic animals are used to identify the functions of specific factors in complex homeostatic systems through over- or under- expression of a modified gene (the inserted transgene).

 

 

    In toxicology; as responsive test animals (detection of toxicants). In mammalian developmental genetics. In molecular biology, the analysis of the regulation of gene expression makes use of the evaluation of a specific genetic change at the level of the whole animal. In the pharmaceutical industry, targeted production of pharmaceutical proteins, drug production and product efficacy testing. In biotechnology; as producers of specific proteins. Genetically engineered hormones to increase milk yield, meat production, and genetic engineering of live stock and in aquaculture affecting modification of animal physiology and/or anatomy; cloning procedures to reproduce specific blood lines. Developing animals specially created for use in xenografting.

 

 

 

SCOPE AND FUTURE

 

     To cure genetic disease, scientist must first determine witch gene or set of genes causes each disease. The human genome project and other international efforts have recently completed the initial work of sequencing and mapping virtually all of the 25,000 to 35,000 genes in the human cell. This research will provide new strategies to diagnose, treat, cure, and possibly prevent human diseases. Although this information will help scientists to determine the genetic basis of many diseases, it will be a long time before disease actually can be treated through gene therapy.” The human genome project is just a startit’s going to locate genes for us, but it’s not going to tell us what these genes do. That will be the next step. Once we have that information, we’ll be able to take advantage of that knowledge to provide treatment and/or cures.” Gene therapy is potential to revolutionize medicine in the future is exiting, and its expectations for curing and preventing childhood disease is encoring. One day it may be possible to treat an unborn child for a genetic disease even before symptoms appear. Scientists are hoping the mapping of the human genome will lead the way toward cures for much disease and that the success of current clinical trails will create new opportunities and challenges. For now, however, it’s a wait- and- see situation, calling for cautious optimism.

 

 

     The problem of the immunogenic of embryonic stem cell derived cellular transplant in the host should be overcome by new approaches then embryonic stem cell will prove to be the potential versatile source of the cellular transplants to be used in CRT to treat a number of degenerative disorders. Utilization and practical application of embryonic stem cell in cell replacement therapy are still in their infancy and need further exploration and extensive investigations, experimental confirmations and clinical trails before they will be made available as an ideal cell substitute for the treatment of a number of degenerative disorders. Once first successful clinical studies will be achieved and evaluated, embryonic stem cells based cell replacement therapy will revolutionize medicine in the near future offering therapeutically alternatives for treatment of serve degenerative disorders.

 

 

 

PROBLEMS WITH ANIMAL BIOTECHNOLOGY

 

     Animal biotechnology has major benefits in biotechnology field but also has some problems witch overcome its use and importency. Expertise is necessary; handling, chemical contamination, microbial contamination, cross contamination. Environmental control; workplace, incubation, pH control, containment and disposable of biohazards. Quatity and cost; capital equipment, consumable, medium, and serum. Genitic instablity; hetrogeneity, variblity. Phenotypic instablity; de-diffrentation, adaptation, and selection. Identification of cell type; expression of markers, histology, cytology geometry and microenvironment. Selection of desire cell phenotype, tumor formation, transplant rejection, etc.

 

 

 

 

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