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                                         ANIMAL CELL SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

 

 

 

 

 

                                        

 

 

 

 

INTRODUCTION-

 

     Animal cells are eukaryotic cells, witch with a membrane-bound nucleus. Unlike prokaryotic cells,DNA in animal cells is present in the nucleus. In addition to having a nucleus, animal cells also have other many membrane-bound cell organelles, or many  tiny cellular structures, that carry out specific functions important  for normal cellular operation. Organelles have a wide range of responsibilities that include everything from producing  enzymes and hormones to providing energy for animal cells. Animal cells are like to plant cells in that they are both eukaryotic cells and have similar types of organelles. Animal cells are generally smaller than plant eukaryotic cells. While animal cells come in various sizes or shapes and tend to have irregular shapes, plant cells are more similar in size and are typically rectangular or cube like shaped. A plant cell also contains structures not found in an animal cell. Some of these include a cell wall, a large vacuole, and plastids. Plastids, such as chloroplasts, assist in storing and harvesting require  substances for the plant. Animal cells also the have structures such as cilia, and flagella, centrioles, lysosomes, that are not typically found in an  plant cells.


Animal Cells: Structures and Organelles- The following are examples of structures and organelles that can be found in typical animal cells:

   

  • Endoplasmic Reticulum - extensive network of membranes composed of both regions with ribosomes (rough ER) and regions  without ribosomes (smooth ER).

 

  • Golgi Complex - responsible for manufacturing, storing and shipping certain cellular products.
     

 

  • Ribosomes - consisting of RNA and proteins, ribosomes are responsible for protein assembly.

 

  • Lysosomes - sacs of enzymes that digest cellular macromolecules such as nucleic acids.
     

 

  • Microtubules - hollow rods that function primarily to help support and shape the cell.
     

 

  • Mitochondria - power producers and the sites of cellular respiration.

 

  • Centrioles - organize the assembly of microtubules during cell division.

 

  • Cytoplasm - gel-like substance within the cell.

 

  • Nucleus - membrane bound structure that contains the cell's hereditary information.
     

    

  • Nucleolus - structure within the nucleus that helps in the synthesis of ribosomes.

 

  • Nucleopore - tiny hole within the nuclear membrane that allows nucleic acids and proteins to move into and out of the nucleus.


   
 

 

Animal Cell Culture-

 
     Cell culture is the very important and complex  process by which cells are grown under controlled conditions or in vitro, generally outside of their natural environment. In practice, the term "cell culture" now refers to the culturing of cells achieved from multi-cellular eukaryotic organisms, especially animal cells. However, there are also cultures of plants, fungi and microbes, including viruses, bacteria etc. The historical development and methods of cell culture are closely interrelated to those of tissue culture and organ culture. Animal cell culture became a common laboratory technique in the mid-1900s, but the concept of maintaining live cell lines (a population of cells derived from a single cell and containing the same genetic makeup) separated from their original tissue source was discovered in the 19th century. The 19th-century an English physiologist Sydney Ringer developed a salt solutions containing the chlorides of sodium, potassium, and calcium and magnesium suitable for maintaining the beating of an isolated animal heart outside of the body.[1] In 1885, Wilhelm Roux removed a portion of the medullary plate of an embryonic chicken and maintained it in a warm saline solution for several days, establishing the principle of tissue culture. Ross Granville Harrison, working at Johns Hopkins Medical School and then at Yale University, published results of his experiments from 1907 to 1910, establishing the methodology of tissue culture.[4] Cell culture techniques were advanced significantly in the 1940s and 1950s to support research in virology. Growing viruses in cell cultures allowed preparation of purified viruses for the manufacture of vaccines. The injectable polio vaccine developed by Jonas Salk was one of the first products mass-produced using cell culture techniques. This vaccine was made possible by the cell culture research of John Franklin Enders, Thomas Huckle Weller, and Frederick Chapman Robbins, who were awarded a Nobel Prize for their discovery of a method of growing the virus in monkey kidney cell cultures.



 

GOAL OF ANIMAL CELL SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY-

 

      Animal cell science and  technology is a important or creative discipline of cell biology which goal not only to understand shapes, structures, functions and behaviors of differentiated an animal cell, but more also to ascertain their abilities to be used for industrial and medical purposes. The goal of animal cell science and  technology includes the clonal expansion of differentiated cells, the optimization of their culture conditions, modulation of their ability to generate proteins witch have medical and pharmaceutical importantance, and the application or imporatance of animal cells to gene therapy, artificial organs and the creation of functional foods. This volume gives the readers a complete review of the present state-of-the-art and will be useful for those working in either academic environments or in the biotechnology and pharmaceutical sectors, molecular biologists, immunologists, biochemical engineers, particularly cell biologists, biochemists, and all other disciplines related to animal cell culture science.

 

 

 

SYLLBUS OF ANIMAL CELL SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY -

 

 According facility to reading or learning syllbus of animal cell science and technology has been divided in four units the are following-

 

Unit I:
 

Structure and Organization of animal cell; Equipments and materials for animal cell culture technology; Primary and established cell line cultures; Introduction to the balanced salt solutions and simple growth medium,


Unit II:


Brief discussion on the chemical, physical and metabolic functions of different constituents of culture medium. Role of carbon dioxide. Role of serum and supplements; Serum & protein free defined media and their application.


Unit III:


Measurement of viability and cytotoxicity; Biology and characterization of the cultured cells, measuring parameters of growth;Cell synchronization; Cell cloning and micromanipulation; Cell transformation; Application of animal cell culture; Scaling-up of animal cell culture.Stem cell cultures, embryonic stem cells and their applications; Cell culture based vaccines, Somatic cell genetics.


Unit IV:


Basic techniques of mammalian cell culture in vitro; disaggregation of tissue and primary culture, maintenance of cell culture; cell separation.Three dimensional culture and tissue engineering.Organ and histotypic cultures; Measurement of cell death; Apoptosis;

 

 

 

BIOLOGY OF ANIMAL CELL-


     An animal cell  are typical of the eukaryotic cell, surrounded by a plasma membrane and having a membrane-bound nucleus and some organelles. without as the eukaryotic cells of plants and fungi, animal cells no have a cell wall. This feature was lost in the distant past by the single-celled organisms that gave generate to the kingdom Animalia. Most cells range in size between 1 and 100 mm( micrometers)  and are thus visible only with the aid of a microscope. The lack of a rigid cell wall allowed animals to develop a greater diversity of cell types, tissues,or organs. specific cells that formed nerves and muscles—tissues impossible for plants to evolve—gave these organisms mobility. The ability to move about by the use of specialized muscle tissues is a hallmark of the animal world. The animal kingdom is unique among eukaryotic organisms because most animal tissues are enclosed together in an extracellular matrix (ECM)  by a triple helix of protein witch called collagen. Plant and fungal cells are bound together in tissues or aggregations by other macro molecules, such as pectin etc. The fact that no other organisms uses collagen in this manner is one of the indications that all animals arose from a common unicellular ancestor.  Most animal cells are diploid, in structure  meaning that their chromosomes exist in homologous pairs. Different chromosomal ploidies are also, however, known to occasionally occur in cell.

 

 

Animal cells prolifiration found in a variety of ways. In instances of sexual reproduction, the cellular process of meiosis is first require so that haploid daughter cells, or gametes, can be produced. Two haploid cells then fuse to makeup a diploid zygote, which changed into a new organism. The earliest fossil evidence of animals dates from the Vendian Period (witch 650 to 544 million years ago), with coelenterate-type creatures that left traces of their soft bodies in shallow-water sediments. The first mass extinction ended that period, but during the Cambrian Period which followed, an explosion of new forms make the evolutionary radiation that generated  most of the major groups,  known today. Vertebrates (witch animals with backbones) are not known to have founded until the early Ordovician Period (witch was 505 to 438 million years ago). Cells were discovered in 1665 by British scientist Robert Hooke who first observed them in his crude (by today's standards) seventeenth century optical microscope.

 

 



                

 

 

 

 

PROBLEMS WITH CELL CULTURE-




Cross-Contamination-

Cell line cross-contamination can be a problem for a expert or worker witch  working with cultured cells. Studies suggest anywhere from 15–20% of the time, cells used in experiments have been misidentified or contaminated with another cell line. Problems with cell line cross-contamination have even been detected in lines from the NCI-60 panel, which are used routinely for drug-screening studies. Major cell line repositories,and the German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures (DSMZ),  including the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC), the European Collection of Cell Cultures (ECACC) , have received cell line submissions from researchers that were misidentified by them. Such contamination ways a problem for the quality of research produced using cell culture lines, and the major repositories are now authenticating all cell line submissions. ATCC uses short tandem repeat (STR) DNA fingerprinting to authenticate its cell lines. To address this problem of cell line cross-contamination, experts are encouraged to authenticate their cell lines at an early passage to maintain  the identity of the cell line. Authentication should be repeated before freezing cell line stocks, every two months during active culturing and before any publication of research data generated using the cell lines. Many methods are used to identify cell lines, such as chromosomal analysis, karyotyping, morphology and STR analysis, including isoenzyme analysis, human lymphocyte antigen (HLA) typing.
 

 

TECHNICAL ISSUES

As cells normally continue to divide in culture medium, they generally grow or produce to fill the available area or volume. This can generate several issues:

 

  • Nutrient depletion in the growth media

 

  • Accumulation of apoptotic/necrotic (dead) cells

 

  • Genetic and epigenetic alterations, with a natural selection of the altered cells potentially leading to overgrowth of abnormal, culture-adapted cells with decreased differentiation and increased Bproliferative capacity.

 

  • Cell-to-cell contact can stimulate cell cycle arrest, causing cells to stop dividing, known as contact inhibition.

 

  • Cell-to-cell contact can stimulate cellular differentiation.

 

 

BOOKS FOR ANIMAL CELL SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY -

 

Some books names given below for more study to animal science and technology  you can studed them-

 

 

 

1.Animal Cell Technology: From Biopharmaceuticals to Gene Therapy by Leda Castilho, Angela Moraes, Elisabeth Augusto and Mike Butler (Jan 31, 2008).

 

2.Animal Cell Technology: Products from Cells, Cells as Products by Wolfgang Noe, Alain Bernard, Bryan Griffiths and Wolfgang Noé (Dec 19, 2007).

 

3.Animal Cell Technology: Basic & Applied Aspects: Volume 13 by Kazumi Yagasaki, Yutaka Miura, Makoto Hatori and Yoshihiro Nomura (Dec 15, 2010).

 

4.Culture of Animal Cells: A Manual of Basic Technique and Specialized Applications by R. Ian Freshney (Sep 17, 2010).

 

5.Culture of Animal Cells: A Manual of Basic Technique and Specialized Applications by R. Ian Freshney (Sep 17, 2010).

 

6.Animal Cell Technology: Developments towards the 21st Century by E.C. Beuvery, W.P. Zeijlemaker and J.B. Griffiths (Feb 29, 1996).

 

 

 

 

    

 

 

 

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