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INTRODUCTION-
 
 
    That is the study of the chemistry of biological organisms. It create a bridge in mid of  biology and chemistry field by studying complex chemical structures and chemical reaction give rise to life. that science is sometimes seem as a hybrid branch of organic chemistry which specific in the chemical transformations and chemical processes that take place inside of living things, but the reality is that the study of biochemistry should normally be considered neither fully "biology" nor fully "chemistry" in nature. Biochemistry incorporates everything in size in mid of a  cell and all the interactions between them. The goal of biochemists is to explain in molecular terms the mechanisms, mechanisms, structures and chemical processes shared by all living organisms, providing organizing principles that underlie life in all its diverse forms.
 
 
Biochemistry essentially remains the structure and function of cellular enzymes and cellular organelles and the ways carried out both on and by organic macromolecules - mostly proteins, but also  nucleic acids, carbohydrates, lipids, and others .  Even when it comes to matters which could identifed to be arbitrary - as the genetic code and meanings of codons, or the "handedness" of various molecules - it is fact that all marine and terrestrial living things shows certain unchanging patterns throughout every level of organization, from family and phylum to kingdomBiochemistry is at the heart of life science. It is a fascinating, diverse and sprawling discipline; which makes it near impossible to pigeon-hole or define concisely. Many look upon biochemistry as a science that explains the essential processes of life, impacting on:-Biotechnology and bioinformatics,Cell biology and signalling,Development and disease,Energy and metabolism Genetics,Molecular biology,and Plant biology.
 
 
The famous biochemist witch called Lubert Stryerand author of Biochemistry (W.H. Freeman & Co.), states that biochemistry is “Greately progressing from a science performed almost completely at the laboratory to one that may be explored through computer analysis. Its practical strategy applies the molecular aspects of chemistry to the vast variety of biological systems."
 
 
Defination-
 
"The chemistry of life"  Study of the properties and of molecules in living organisms and how those molecules are produce,  changed, and broken down. or chemistry that deals with the chemical compounds and processes occurring in living organisms
 
 
 
HISTORY-
 
 
 
     The biochemistry spans about 450 years. Although the term “biochemistry” seems to have been first used in 1882, the word "biochemistry" was first proposed in 1903 by Carl Neuberg, witch a German chemist. that  is the study of chemical processes in organisms. Biochemistry conduct to all living organisms and living processes. By controlling information flow through biochemical signalling and the flow of energy through metabolism, biochemical processes give create to the incredible complexity of life. Much of biochemistry deals with the structures, or functions of cellular components . although increasingly processes rather than particular  molecules are the main focus. Over the last 45 years biochemistry has become so successful at express living processes that now almost all areas of the life sciences from botany to medicine are engaged in biochemical research. in curent the main focus of biochemistry is in understanding how biological molecules give create to the processes that occur within living system which in turn relates greatly to the understanding of whole organisms.
 
 
Among the different biomolecules, many are large molecules (called polymers), which are composed of similar repeating subunits (called monomers). every class of polymeric biomolecule has a many set of subunit. eg , a protein is a polymer whose subunits are selected from a set of 20 amino acids. Biochemistry studies the chemical properties of significant biological molecules and in particular the chemistry of enzyme-catalyzed reactions.
 
 
 
            
 
 
 
 
 
SYLLABUS-
 
 
That field of science is an advanced overview of general biochemistry. A study of protein structure and their physical properties; how these properties relate to catalysis, regulation of catalysis and metabolic chemistry. with respect to their relationship to physiological conditions. In this course the student is expected to develop: (1) An understanding of the  process of inheritance and protein synthesis. (2) An understanding of the relationship of the structure of an enzyme to its function. (3) A understanding of the central energy metabolism as well as the basic chemical properties that underlie these processes.(4) An understanding of the mechanisms of regulation of metabolic processes(5) The interdependent relationship between enzyme catalysis, metabolism, regulation and their importance to the physiological condition of an organism. (6)  A foundation in the descriptions, chemistries and physical properties of proteins and enzymes. 
 
 
 
Syllabus diveded into two sections for learner's-
 
Section A- concept of life and living processess- the indentifying characterstics for a living mattar. cell mambrane system and cell wall cell membrnae and its organization, elementory idea of cellular constitute, bacterial palnt cell wall, important properties of water the law of mass action association of water and its ionic product, pH, bronted acids, ionization of weak acids, and b henderson haeselbatch equation, biomolecules the small molecule of the life- sugars, organic acid, amiono acid etc. bioenergitics and concept of free energy high energy phosphate compound. crobhydrate metabolism.and lipid metabolism.
 
 
Section B- protien metabolism, sturted and unsaturated fatty acids, formations of kitone bodies, membrane phospholipids, cholestrol and steroids. nucleic acid metabolism biosynthesis  and break down of purine and primidine by denovo and salvage pathway. metabolic  regulation. mitochondria and release of energy, chloroplast , structure , orgnisation and function of chloroplast, enzymes- nomenclature and classifiction, isozyme mode of catalysis. 
 
 
 
 
 
 
BIOCHEMISTRY BOOKS-
 
 
 
 
1.   Donald Voet, Hardcover: biochemistry about 1616 pages, Publisher: Wiley; third edition-
 
That is an costly comprehensive textbook for learners or students witch have had the equivalent of complete one year of college chemistry subject  and at least one semester of chemistry, as one year college course in general biotechnology  in which elementary biochemical ideas were discussed. Don and Judy Voet expressed biochemical concepts and ideas while offering a unified presentation on  life and its diffrentiation via evolution. Incorporates both today and classical research to illustrate the historical source of much of biochemical information. This edition has been updated to reflect the enormous extra advances in molecular and protein structure's.
 
 
2. Reginald H. Garrett, Charles M. Grisham, Principles of Biochemistry, Hardcover: 976 pages, Publisher: Brooks Cole
 
An book witch provides junior, and senior science majors the mainly up-to-date coverage of biochemistry and a distinct attract on the topics most relevant to human health and medicine field. witch written by a Grisham chemist and a Garrett biologist, the book shows biochemistry from a balanced perspective. It stresses the principles governing function, structure and interactions of biological molecules. A chapter on the protein life cycle and reports current RNA findings.
 
 
3.  David L. Nelson, Michael M. Cox, Lehninger Principles of Biochemistry, 4 Edition, Hardcover: 1100 pages, Publisher: W. H. Freeman-
 
An book witch is Lehninger Principles of Biochemistry is truly one of the the very special books on the subject. The first chapters of the past edition have been simplified discribe into a single chapter. And new is an innovative graphical style for showing complete enzyme reaction mechanisms. The first chapter introduces about the human genome structure. Biochemical insights gained from the human genome are integrated all around the text. Tracking the emergence of genomics, proteomics, the chapter explaning DNA technology in a core topic and a way to understanding signelling, metabolism and many other topics covered in the middle chapters of this edition. Includes coverage of microarrays, comparative genomics, and techniques in cloning.
 
 
 
4. Shawn O. Farrell, Ryan T. Ranallo,Experiments in Biochemistry, Paperback: 324 pages, Publisher: Brooks Cole-
 
An book on experiments o biochemistry.writer are have to work and can be completed in a normal lab time. Alternate versions of researchs allow for easy use in labs which meet many times a week. The manual also makes it easy for students or learners to use due to six “Tip” boxes present throughout the textbook , which give pointers on how to doing the labs and six “Essential Information” boxes that highlight information. There are also references and further reading sections present at the end of each topic.
 
 
5. Gary S. Stein (Editor), Renato Baserga, Antonio Giordano, David T. Denhardt, The Molecular Basis of Cell Cycle, Hardcover: 389 pages, Publisher: Wiley-Liss-
 
 
Cell development, growth and controlling has become a subject of vital interest to basic experts. Never has the need for authoritative views like as this been bigest. Comprising contributions by an international team of researchers  at the forefront of one of today’s liveliest areas of biomedical research, this book reports on the state-of-the-science in cell growth and regulation from the conceptual, clinical perspective. Written at a level that will appeal to professionals as well as medical students, it express a major range of related topics, with an emphasis on the identification of checkpoints and restriction points and the mechanisms of proliferation competency and cell cycle progression. including- Differentiation, development, and programmed cell death; Cellular senescence and immortalization.
 
 
 
 
 
BIOCHEMISTRY TEST-
 
 
 
 
Total Protein (PROT) Test : That test measures several different proteins, with albumin being the most abundant  in blood strem. Changes in complete total Protein concentration are common and can be due to nutritional causes or general debility.
 
Albumin (ALB) Test : Decresed albumin levels can be shown in conditions resulting in protein loss, reduction in synthesis, abnormal distribution of albumin. High levels are often the result of dehydration, or even prolonged uses of a tourniquet at the time of sample achieving.
 
Urea (UREA) and Creatinine (CREA) Test : Applicable to assess kidney function. High levels of urea can be present in dehydration. 
 
Platelet count (PLT) Test : That measures the number of platelets in blood stream. High platelet counts can be seen following strenuous activity, in some infections and inflammatory conditions time. Extremely low platelet counts can be associated with spontaneous bleeding.
 
Uric Acid (UA) Test : Applicable in increased levels of many disorders but most commonly in those with a predisposition to gout. Decreased levels are probably of little clinical significance.Cholesterol (CHOL),Total cholesterol/HDL ratio (TCHR), HDL Cholesterol (HDL), LDL Cholesterol (LDL), Triglycerides (TRIG):these are usually known as the lipid or cholesterol profile and they help asses the risk of atherosclerosis and subsequent risk of heart disease. Fasting levels are required in order to make the best assessment in test.
 
 
Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) Test : considered to be undesirable or “bad” because it deposits more cholesterol in the walls of blood vessels and contributes to hardening of the arteries.Total Cholesterol/HDL Ratio: The number is obtained by dividing the total cholesterol value from the value of the HDL cholesterol. This ratio is useful in estimating cardiovascular risk – The higher the number, the higher the risk.
 
Triglycerides (TRIG) Test : The body’s storage forms of fat and is applied together with Cholesterol in the lipid profile to estimate an specific  cardiovascular risk. Most triglycerides are meet in fat tissue, but some triglycerides circulate in the blood to provide fuel for muscles. Diets high in carbohydrates, especially sugar, way to increases in triglycerides.
 
High Density Lipoprotein (HDL) Test : That Is considered to be “well” or cardio protective. A good level is desirable as it removes excess cholesterol from tissues it to the liver for disposal. 
 
 
Calcium (CA), Corrected Calcium (CACO) Test : levels may be increased or decreased in a major variety of bone diseases and some glandular diseases. They are also have significance in assessing kidney function. Calcium concentration is affected by the albumin level so a corrected calcium level is calculated to allow for this. The corrected calcium level is the more relevant level.
 
Glucose (GLU): Are used  in the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus but levels vary widely depending on whether the sample was taken from a fasting or a non-fasting special . increased and decreased levels can be seen in a number of other clinical conditions.
 
 
 
 
 
 
            
 
 
 
 
BIOCHEMISTRY ANALYZER-
 
 
 
      The biochemical analyzers featured here represent two many different classes of multi-parameter analytical systems. One class features systems for applicable in clinical settings ranging from small office and veterinary clinics to high throughput clinical labs. The other type of automatic biochemical analyzer is configured for good bioreactor monitoring. Both automated biochemistry analyzers offer a bigest range of test templates for common substances, with analyzers directed toward nutrient and bioreactor byproduct detection. An automated biochemistry analyzer can focus on analytes, such as  electrolytes, specific proteins, drugs of abuse, as well as enzyme and metabolite tests for renal, cardiac, and liver function. These automatic biochemistry analyzers offer a hierarchy of options and functions such as number of photometric per hour (up to 240 and 400 per hour respectively), as well as the number of ISE test and assay types available. biochemical analyzer systems allow one to switch between on-line and off-line analysis of nutrient and by-product concentrations witch that have.
 
 
Many process  of introducing samples into the analyser have been invented. This can involve placing test tubes of sample into racks, or inserting tubes into circular carousels that rotate to make the sample available. Some biochmistry analysers require samples to be transferred to sample cups or containers. However, the effort to protect the health and safety of laboratory staff has prompted many producers to develop analysers that feature closed tube sampling, preventing workers from direct exposure to samples in lab.
 
 
Samples can be processed singly, in batches, or continuously in process.The automation of laboratory testing does not remove the need for human expertise (results must still be evaluated by medical technologists and other qualified clinical laboratory professionals), but it does ease concerns about error reduction, staffing concerns, and safety.
 
 
 
 
BIOCHEMISRY CAREERS-
 
     
     The study of chemical processes that take place in living organisms body, is a broad field field of science that offers a wide range of career options in current. Biochemists can pursue stem cell or genetic research that has the potential to result in dramatic medical or scientific or experts  breakthroughs. Some biochemists study the body’s immune response to germs and allergens or the effectiveness of drugs in treating a wide array of afflictions. Other biochemists or experts work in the commercial food or agricultural field looking for ways to improve products and crops. The many and diverse applications of biochemistry include pharmacology, genetics, immunology, environmental science, forensics, toxicological studies, bioinformatics, and food science. The career options are nearly without end, and still unfolding, as new approches for this exciting field of study continue to evolve.
 
 
Biochemistry is applied to medicine, dentistry, and veterinary medicine and others. In food science, biochemists research or strategy  ways to develop maximum and inexpensive sources of nutritious foods, determine the chemical composition of foods, develop methods to extract nutrients from waste products, or invent ways to prolong the shelf life of  food products. In agriculture, biochemists study the interaction of herbicides with live plants. They examine the structure-activity relationships of compounds, determine their ability or power to inhibit growth, and evaluate the toxicological effects on throughout  life.Biochemistry spills over into pharmacology, physiology, and clinical chemistry,microbiology. In these areas, a biochemist may investigate the mechanism of a drug action; engage in viral research; conduct research pertaining to organ function; or significance chemical concepts, procedures, and techniques to study the diagnosis and therapy of disease with assessment of health.
 
 
 
 
             
 
 
 
 
 
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