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                                          BIOPROCESS ENGINEERING





     Bioprocess engineering is the alteration or significance of renewable thning to create value-added products. It usage discovery, research, development and the manufacturing and commercialization of bio products. Bioprocess engineering developed many type of products  in witch include: fuels, food, feed, pharmaceuticals, nutraceuticals and a multitude of value-added biomaterials found in and used by all industrial points.Bioprocess Engineering is a specialization of  Biological Engineering, Biotech., Chemical Engineering or of Agricultural Engineering. It deals with the shape or style and development of equipment and processes for the creation of products such as  pharmaceuticals, nutraceuticals, food, feed, chemicals, and many polymers and paper from biological materials. Bioprocess engineering is a conglomerate of mathematics, biology and industrial design,and madeup of diffrent spectrums like designing or shape of bioreactors, learn of fermentors. It also deals with studying diffrent diffrent biotechnological processes used in bioindustries for large scale manufacturing  of biological product for optimization of yield in the end product and the quality of end product. Bioprocess engineering may include the work of mechanical, and electrical,industrial engineers to apply principles  to processs based on using living organisms cells or sub component of such type of cells.
Usage of engineering principles or terms to analysis of and development and design of methods using biological catalysts like enzymes, living cells, and genetically engineered cells.  
     Engineering processes have been requried for human survival and for satisfying to diffrent requirements throughout human culture. current bio-process technology is an extension of ancient techniques for developing significant products by taking uses of natural biological activities.Early biotechnological processes that use microbs to produce a fixedproduct have been used for many thousand years. When our early ancestors made alcoholic liquid beverages, they used a bioprocess: method the combination of live yeast cells and nutrients (like cereal grains) create a fermentation system in which the organisms used the nutrients for their own growth and produced several by-products (as alcohol and carbon dioxide gas) that helped to produce the liquid beverage. Although  today's more bioprocess technology is based on the same principle or method: combining living matter (whole organisms or enzymes) with nutrient suppliments under the controled conditions require to make the specific end product.The Egyptians brewed beer and baked product in the 4th millennium BC.  A basic purification step, the distillation of ethanol beverage, was applied in the 2nd millennium BC in the china country. Modern biotech. was started in the 19th century when general knowledge about biological system, their components, and interaction between components grew. In the first half of the 20th century the first bigest scale fermentation processes, namely penicillin and citric acid, were realized. The process of recombinant DNA technology or genetic engineering  then led to a substantial increase in the number of bioprocesses and their manufacturing volume starting with insulin, the first product produced with recombinant DNA technology, in the early 1980s time.
The development of recombinant DNA technology or genetic engineering and monoclonal antibody technology, which started in about  the 1970s, has led to the introduction of a large number of new products with significant in many types areas. The most highly visible significance have been in the area of human health care, with product such as interferons, tissue plasminogen activator, human insulin,  erythropoietin, and monoclonal antibody-based bioproducts. In addition usage new products for agriculture, food industry, good chemicals and the environments are also under intense development. Thus the field of bioprocessing has become a very significant part of biotechnology. Today, the bio-industries have reached a critical size or shape and are additionally based on a major understanding of proteomics, bioinformatics, genomics,  genetic transformation and molecular breeding. The current worldwide sales or marketing of bioprocess products are reported to range about between 11 and 60 billion dollar, depending upon type of  the source.
    For several years aspects of molecular genetics and biochemistry have been joined in chemical engineering curricula, yet there has been some attempt till recently to teach aspects of engineering applicable to process design to biotechnologists.These books are the first to present the principles of bioprocess engineering in a good way that is accessible to biological experts.also other on bioprocess engineering todays available assume that the readers already has engineering training to learn. On the other sides, chemical engineering textbooks do not consider e.g. from bioprocessing, and are written almost exclusively with the petroleum and chemical industries in mind. These publications explains process analysis from an engineering point of view, but refers exclusively to the treatment of biological systems. Over thousands problems and worked examples encompass a great range of applications, immobilised catalysts, including recombinant cells, living cell cultures,  as well as traditional fermentation processess.These welcomes new editions discusses bioprocess engineering from the perspective of biology learnerss. It includes a great deal of new material and has been extensively revised and expanded. 
These follwoing are some principle books of bioprocess engineering witch you can to study-
1 Bioprocess Engineering Principles, Second Edition by Pauline M. Doran (May 30, 2012).
2.Bioprocess Engineering Principles by Pauline M. Doran (May 25, 1995).
3.Bioprocess Engineering: Basic Concepts (2nd Edition) by Michael L. Shuler and Fikret Kargi (Nov 10, 2001).
4.Studyguide for Bioprocess Engineering Principles by Doran, Pauline M. by Cram101 Textbook Reviews (May 17, 2013).
5.e-Study Guide for: Bioprocess Engineering Principles by Pauline M. Doran, ISBN 9780122208515 by Cram101 Textbook
Reviews (Apr 3, 2013).
    Bioprocess engineering uses the abilities of microbs to produce a great variety of bio products for medical, industrial and agricultural significance. in current timecomputer based bioreactors are used to create large or best quantities or quality of important biologicals materials  such as recombinant proteins, antibiotics or viral vaccines,  amino acids. Many of the potential new drugs are generated in eukaryotic living cells which express poor productivity vs. to classical fermentation processes. To take the full potential of biotech based production process, highly developed cell culture technologies and sophisticated product recovery steps have to be established. Consequently, the acquisition of an enormous amount of data on different levels is essential to develop and optimize new and existing industrial methods. improvements in on- & off-line monitoring facilitate the analysis of cell metabolism system, media usage and product production in bioreactors or give relevant information on  product purity after many chromatographic methods. Furthermore, current progress in high-throughput analysis of DNA and protein expression, protein function or signal transduction will helps to elucidate methods of cellular behavior and offer tremendous opportunities for optimizing bioprocesses or makes a new opportunity in pharmacy and medicine field. 
Math based modeling plays a crucial role in testing and viewing in vitro cell culture technology. Without such models it is manually impossible to quantitatively understand metabolic pathways and regulatory networks of living cells, compact interactions between microbs and their environment in a bioreactor environment or to allow for a rational design of downstream processing steps to larging yield and purity of the last product or byproduct. So far, only qualitative aspects of cell growth and product production are established for most of the existing current time research focuses on bioprocesses essential to stoped and eradicate several infectious diseases, which are in terms of product numbers and social impact one of the most challenging areas of cell culture process. Math based modeling of biological systems as well as monitoring and control of bioprocesses is done in close cooperation with research groups Systems Biology and Systems and Control Theory. Furthermore, analytical methods to better understand aspects of DNA expression, metabolism and signal transduction in cellular systems are being used.
The Bioprocess Engineering has interests that encompass many diffrent aspects of biotechnology and genetic engineering, including fundamental work in biomolecular interactions; to protein design, growth, and its characterization; enzyme and microbial technology; biosensors and/or DNA based analysis, bioseparations and bioreactors. and many diffrent significance of bioprocess engineering are being researched, including: food preservation and food processing, the manufacturing of pharmaceuticals, nutraceuticals,  air and wastewater treatment; bio-based structural motifs for supramolecular architectures; microfluidics as used to bioreactors and DNA chips; bioenergy; and signifiacant in the pulp and paper industry. There are also some natural links to biomedical applications, such as drug metabolism, tissue engineering, and the development or use of bio-based agents for therapeutic purposes.
      The knowledge of molecular breeding, stem cell technology and pharmacogenomics might way to high personalized therapies and therapeutics.It can expected that biocatalyst such as insect and plant cell and transgenic plants and animals sooner or later will reach much broader significantly, although this might not happen in next decade. The increased use of extremophiles and their enzymes  in non-aqueous solution will broaden the technology platform for bioprocesses. Apart from the genetic engineering, the naturally occurring organism also provides the huge reservoir of new products.Bioprocesses will be applicable in the industries where they are not used current or where only lab scale processes are developed. It is expected that the combination of biotech, nanotech and IT will lead to substantial rate of progress and expansion. The use of IT has already way to improvement in the screening and development of new drugs and in the understanding of biological system. It might also lead to bio-chips for computers that replace silicon based chips.The bio-industries are still immature and productions are relatively low. Therefore not only do the strain and fermentation have to be optimized and production scales increased, but also a substantial progress in downstream technologies is necessary. Modeling, simulation and accompanying sustainability assessment will play a crucial role in achieving a full exploitation of the potential of bioprocessing.However, in some areas in the expected positive development will reach its full potential only if the public acceptance of biotechnology can be improved considerably. The expending development of biofuels is an good example. Here, an open and constructive dialogue based on the sound sustainability is crucial, and scientist can make a valuable contribution to this discussion. well trained bio-experts are essential for the existing potential of biotechnology to be realized.
     Bioprocessing makes use of microbs, cells in culture or enzymes to create products and byproduts. mans have been using such processes for baking or making cheese and fermenting alcoholic beverages since thousands years. Advances in genetic engineering or recombinant DNA technology allow the manufacturing of an diffrent variety of protein-based therapeutics that are having a profound impact on the quality of life for severely ill patients. Bioprocessing is also key to diifrent emerging industries and technologies, including the manufacturing of renewable biofuels such as ethanol or biodiesel, gene therapy vectors,therapeutic stem cells, and new vaccines. The Drug and Food Administration imposes stringent controlledon bioprocessing in the biotech industry; this highly control environment has an enormous impact on plant operations and product creations learners in the Bioprocessing focus area will gained a thorough understanding of industrial processes from early-stage development through large-scale production.Career Options Bioprocess Engineering Process Development Manufacturing Operations Project Management Environmental Remediation Food Technology Therapeutic Stem Cells Development and produce of Gene Therapy Vectors and Vaccines Development and Production of Renewable Biofuels New Enterprise  Development.
Points in the Curriculum Bioprocess Engineering Fundamentals Bioprocess shape and design  and Economics Unit Operations and Process Flow Diagrams Bioprocess Operations Management Bioreactor Design and Operations Microbial Fermentation Mammalian and Stem Cell Culture Bioseparations Bioprocess Development & Scale-upCurrent Good Manufacturing Practices nice Operating Procedures Recombinant Protein Production Protein Recovery, Purification and Analysis Beer and Wine Fermentation Viral Vaccines and Gene Therapy Vector Production Renewable Biofuels Production.many Areas of interest for bioprocess engineers are:Pharmaceutical / Nutraceuticals,Food and beverages,Fermentation and product separation technologies,Processing, handling and storage of ag. products,Application of sensor and computer technologies for the development of process control systems,Modeling of biological materials,Conversion of biomass into products,Bioremediation for environmental preservation, Industrial enzymatic reactions.
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