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                                                                           BIOTECHNOLOGY

 

                                                                  

 

                                               

 

 

 

 

 


SCOPE AND CARRER-
 


    The Scope of this biotech stream are bigest and normally mind-boggling. On one hand, it caters to the today industrial sector such as food or  beverages industry, textiles industry, several biological products, medicines and pharmaceuticals while on the other sides this branch of science solicitous to the requirements of agriculture, environmental conservation and
or animal husbandry, nutrition etc.



Although, the name biotechnology may suggest that this field of science is steeped in biology. Apart from biology, this branch of science also assimilates diverse subjects like math, chemistry and physics etc. Furthermore, engineering applications are also an integral content of biotechnology.The concepts of bioterchnology derived from this dissimilar mix of sciences are applied to biological matter, commonly living cells, for production new and improved biological and industrial products and by products. Students are showing tremendous interest in this stream. The primary reason back of  this interest emerges from the fact that the technical and procedural significance of biotechnology touches a bigest array of disciplines. This in turn opens a lot many job portals for students or for learners who are seeking a stable career in their life. Biotechnology, along with its many sub-fields, finds use in so many uses that many new fields have and are being derived from within it.


 
What Is It The Right Career for Us?

 

 
Main traits for getting into this point are a high degree of gentelness and a general aptitude for research and scientific usage.Since biotechnology is again define the limits of science, to become a part of such an innovative field you must posses an inherent behave of realty and imagination. Other strategy that will sail you via a successful and a fulfilling scope in this path-breaking area are  immense patience, analytical proficiency,
perseverance, ability to hard work for long hours, team spirit and communication skills.



Market Seek

 


The field Biotechnology has been forming steady advance in last decade. Mostly earnings from this industry presently come from exports and  the trend is expected to remain the same in the future. Although, learners doing research work in this area have a nature to work in foreign countries, yet there is huge force for learners who want to stay and work there. current survey tell that, India is stated to become an international attraction point for development in biotechnology.


The fields  where biotechnology research  has create in India includes Agro- Biotechnology, Bioinformatics, Bio fertilizers,
Animal Husbandry, and Dairy indutries development. Development has also been views the area of Bio-resource Development, Marine Biotechnology, Microbiology, Plant Biology, Genetic research and more others.. The changes in the patent low along with the initiatives taken by the local government are expected to bear fruit. All this will way to a rapid growth and exploration of biotechnological buisness in the country.




Foreign Focus

At the foreign meter, India has started making its presence felt in the area of biotechnology. However, there is tremendous career for graduate and post-graduate both type of students from this area mainly in the U.S. and in European countries. A large number of post-graduate research scholars and
students nature to move out of India to complete their higher studies. Furthermore, these learners  prefer to seek employment in the country where they complete their studies or research projects.



Positives/Negatives Progress-


+ves:


• This is an upcoming and constantly growing science and has worldwide scope especially in terms of research.

• The scope for research is very wide and efficient work gets fast acclamation within multinationals.

• If you succeed in clearing the tests and interviews, it is assumed you are the right fit for the profession.




-ves:

• The number of seats for biotechnology courses is very limited across colleges in comparison with subjects such as physics, chemistry or biology.

• The testing and interviewing processes usually are difficult and one has to be technically expert.

• The number of companies employing biotechnology students is less when compared with number of companies hiring IT professionals or finance professionals.

• You will have to put in a lot of hard work which can be frustrating at times.

• This is not a profession for people who want to make fast buck but for people who are looking for a long and a well charted career.

 



Tips for Getting Hired



1. Apply to at least five to ten top companies to have options for selecting the best job offer out of the ones received.

2. Carry proof of your technical expertise and assure as much as possible that you will be an asset to the company that hires you.

3. Demand a reasonable salary as in the beginning, your focus must be to learn how the industry works, overall.

4. Explore all the possible learning and development opportunities that the companies you have applied to, will provide you. This will help      you in choosing the best out of all the offers received.


 

 


BIOTECHNOLOGY IN INDIA-


Biotechnology deals with the application of biological knowledge and techniques pertaining to molecular, cellular and genetic processes to develop significantly improved products and services. The applications of biotechnology range from agriculture, industrial and medical biotechnology.


The Indian biotechnology sector is one of the fastest growing knowledge-based sectors in India and is expected to play a key role in shaping India's rapidly  developing economy. With numerous comparative advantages in terms of research and development (R&D) facilities, knowledge, skills, and cost effectiveness,  the biotechnology industry in India has immense potential to emerge as a global key player. In fact, India has been ranked among the top 12 biotech destinations worldwide and third largest in the Asia-Pacific region. the sector can be divided into the segments of bio-pharmaceuticals, bio-services, bio-agriculture, bio-industrial and bio-informatics. Nearly 64 per cent  of the biotech companies operate in the bio-pharma sector, followed by the bio-services (18 per cent), bio-agri (14 per cent), bio-industrial (3 per cent) and lastly the bio-informatics sector (1 per cent).



 

Job Prospects



Biotechnology assimilates in itself a number of disciplines. Further, there is a great demand for biotechnical experts in countless industries and sectors.
 


 The following are applications where biotechnological techniques are used extensively:

• Agriculture
• Animal Husbandry
• Environment Conservation
• Genetic Engineering
• Health Care
• Medicine
• Industrial Research and Development


 

Top Companies

Some companies to work with:


1. Biocon
2. Serum Institute of India
3. Panacea Biotech
4. Mahyco Monsanto Biotech
5. Rasi Seeds
6. Novo Nordisk
7. Aventis
8. Indian Immunologicals
9. Venkateshwara Hatcheries
10. Ranbaxy
11. Dr. Reddy’s Labs
12. Piramal Healthcare.



Overall, these are some of the major names in Indian biotechnological industry which extensively use biotechnological processes and techniques to develop and innovate products and processes.
 

Career opportunities for students in biotechnology abound. Those specialising in different sub-disciplines of this field can easily find jobs in both private and government sector undertakings. If you have acquired a post-graduate degree in biotechnology then you can easily find a suitable position ina number of industries.

Major recruiters include industries engaged in processing and developing agricultural and biological products, bio-processing industries, pharmaceutical and chemical industries. There are ample opportunities in industries producing healthcare products, textile industry, cosmetics and organisations engaged in different types of industrial research and development. These days a growing number of qualified biotechnical professionals are engaged by different industries for environment protection activities and for the safe disposal of hazardous materials.

 

 

 

 

                                   


 

 

 

BIOTECHNOLOGY FUTURE-
 



Job Outlook

Opportunities for chemists in biotechnology are undoubtedly growing as the field matures and branches outside molecular biology. Although jobs in  biotechnology will probably never be as plentiful as they were in the last ten years, the employment outlook is still considered very good. As more entrepreneurs begin new businesses and more existing companies advance in the biotechnology field, the demand for biotechnologists will increase. In  addition, as more biotechnology products now in development reach the phase when they are ready for market, there will be increasing demand for chemical engineers to work on some of the production and scale-up problems of making biotechnology products in bulk, as well as bachelor's chemists for sales and marketing.


What You Can Do Now

Get as much background in biology, chemistry, and genetics as you can. All these disciplines are critical in biotechnology, and being well-rounded only works to your benefit. Lab experience is also important. Most companies have summer student programs and students profit from this experience by finding out  if this is a field they might enjoy. The earlier you participate in this type of experience, the more advantages you will reap.

 


Career Possibilities

Although each company is structured differently, most biotechnology firms operate with a hierarchy of senior scientists, scientists, and research assistants. "With a bachelor's degree you can reach the level of scientist in a biotechnology lab, but it takes hard work and serious creativity," comments Reynolds."In my experience," says Kuroki, "you have to have a Ph.D. to advance in this field. A lot of ambitious research assistants stay one year and then go backto graduate school." Scientists with Ph.D.s follow a more creative career path in which the work they do is not much different from that of a scientist in an academic environment. In fact, many biotechnology companies were founded by academic scientists who took their projects out of universities and into a commercial environment.

"I personally prefer being in a commercial company," says Kuroki. "I am surrounded by dedicated, intellectual, and motivated people. For all the advantages of academe, it can be isolating. In industry, you have more opportunity to interact with other people."

However, a career in industry may mean making a decision early on about whether your career will follow a research or a more administrative track. On aresearch track, a scientist spends more time at the bench, advancing to higher levels of scientific research. A managerial track can involve job functions  from running the laboratory to developing the company's overall business and marketing plans. Opportunities vary considerably depending on the company and perhaps, more often, on the personality and goals of the individual scientist.




ADVANCE IN BIOTECHNOLOGY


In these review journal, biotechnology is viewed in a comprehensive context: a multidisciplinary field in which biological systems are developed and/or used for the provision of commercial goods or services. Biotechnology Advances is devoted to all areas of biotechnology including relevant aspects of its disciplinary underpinnings in biology, chemistry and engineering. The primary purpose is to provide regular, rapid but authoritative reviews of important advances in this field for students, researchers, managers and others in industry, government and academia. A timely series of research review papers, patent abstracts and summaries of special government reports on the principles and practices of biotechnology are covered quarterly. Occasionally, special issues will be published as proceedings of appropriate conferences and symposia. Organizers of such meetings should contact the Editors for further details.

 

 

 

 



                                                             
 

 

 

 

 

 

  These books review series presents current trends in modern biotechnology. The aim is to cover all aspects of this interdisciplinary technology where knowledge, methods and expertise are required from chemistry, biochemistry, microbiology, genetics, chemical engineering and computer science.Volumes are organized topically and provide a comprehensive discussion of developments in the respective field over the past 3-5 years. The series also discusses new discoveries and applications. Special volumes are dedicated to selected topics which focus on new biotechnological products and new processes for their synthesis and purification.

In general, special volumes are edited by well-known guest editors. The series editor and publisher will however always be pleased to receive suggestions and supplementary information. Manuscripts are accepted in English.In references, Advances in Biochemical Engineering/Biotechnology is abbreviated as Adv. Biochem. Engin./Biotechnol. and cited as a journal.

 

 

 


APPLICATION OF BIOTECHNOLOGY -


The applications of biotechnology are so broad, and the advantages so compelling, that virtually every industry is using this technology.  Developments are underway in areas as diverse as pharmaceuticals, diagnostics, textiles, aquaculture, forestry, chemicals, household products, environmental cleanup, food processing and forensics to name a few. Biotechnology is enabling these industries to make new or better products, often with greater speed, efficiency and  flexibility (1). Biotechnology holds significant promise to the future but certain amount of risk is associated with any area.  Biotechnology must continue to be carefully regulated so that the maximum benefits are received with the least risk.


Biotechnology is at a crossroads in terms of public acceptance. Many Americans have not yet formed a solid opinion on this complex issue.  International developments over the next few years will certainly have a major influence on the long-term viability of biotechnology. The future of the world food supply  depends upon how well scientists, government, and the food industry are able to communicate with consumers about the benefits and safety of the technology. Several major initiatives are under way to strengthen the regulatory process and to communicate more effectively with consumers. Both the USDA and FDA have opened their regulatory systems to outside review and public comment. The biotechnology industry, university scientists and others are also conducting educational programs (27). These should further strengthen consumer confidence. This partnership among the public and private sectors will support these emerging technologies that will prove vital to the U.S. economy and the developing world in the new millennium.  Even Europe will soon find the real benefits of biotechnology compelling.


Biotechnology has applications in four major industrial areas, including health care (medical), crop production and agriculture, non food (industrial) uses of crops and other products (e.g. biodegradable plastics, vegetable oil, biofuels), and environmental uses. For example, one application of biotechnology is the directed use of organisms for the manufacture of organic products (examples include beer and milk products). Another example is using naturally present bacteria by the mining industry in bioleaching. Biotechnology is also used to recycle, treat waste, cleanup sites contaminated by industrial activities (bioremediation), and also to produce biological weapons.

 

 

 

Some Applications are  -

 

1. Gene Therapy – replace defective genes with functional ones

 

             a. ADA (adenosine deaminase) deficiency

 

             b. cystic fibrosis

 


2. Immunosuppressive Therapies – used to inhibit rejection (organ transplants)
 

3. Cancer Therapies -one method is antisense technology

4. Vaccines – biggest break through in biotechnology- prevention of disease

 

5. Replacement Therapies- lack of production of normal substances

6. Use of Transgenic Animals and Plants


7. Biopolymers and Medical Devices- natural substances useful as medical devices

8. Designer Drugs – using computer modeling to design drugs without the lab- protein structure


9. Diagnostics

 

 

             a. Antibodies

 

             b. Biosensors

 

             c. PCR

 


10. Therapeutics  

 

 

                 a. Natural Products     

   

                 b. Foxglove:  

 

                 c. digitalis: heart conditions

 

 

 

 

                            

 

 

 

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