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                       CELL BIOLOGY









     Cell is a unit of structure and biological activity made of an organized mass of protoplasm surrounded by a protective and selective permeable covering. The study of form, structure and contents of cells as observed under the microscopes. The term was coined by hertwig who also wrote a book on cells and tissues. Cell biology is the study of all aspects of cells and their components including their structure, biochemistry, development and physiology. Many experiments are carried out with cells in the culture rather than using the animal models. This is\s particularly so with regard to the determination of safety and cytotoxicity of several compounds. In cell biology differentiation is the process of expression of phenotype properties characteristics of the functionality mature cell in vivo. Differentiation here is describe as the combination of constitute and adaptive and properties found in the mature cell. The division of all cells must be carefully regulated and coordinated with both cell growth and DNA replicatin in order to ensure the formation of progeny cells containing intact genom,es. In eukryotic cells, progression through the cell cycle is controlled by a series of proytin kinase that have been conserved from yeasts to mammals.







     Living being or organisms are made of one or more cells. Cell is a basic unit of structure and function of organisms. It was discovered by rober Hooke (1665) when he saw empty compartments in a very thin slice of cork under his microscope. He wrote a book “micrographia” and coined the term cell. Pior to Robert hooke, jan Swammerdam (1658) has seen red blood corpuscles of frog. Marcello Malpighi (1661) also observed small structures or utricles in slices of plant and animal tissues.leeuwenhock (1672) was the first to see free cells. He observed bacteria, protozoa, red blood cells, sperms, etc. under his microscope. Nehmiah grew (1682) initiated cell concept when he found that plant tissues contain minute elementary structures or cells. In 1809, Lamarck came to the conclusion that all living being are formed of cells. Dutrochet(1824) believed in individuality of cells. Living substance was first observed by corti 1772 and was named sarcode by dujardin (1836), Robert brown (1831) named the jeely like living substance or sarcode of the cell as protoplasm.







    Cell biology is a major field of biotechnology witch is completed in a deep description. There are many several points to study cell biology in briefly.-


  Cell diversity, cell size and shape, cell theory, structure, and function of cell organelle in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell, cell as experimental models like e-coli, yeast, drosophila, Arabidopsis, and vertebrates. The cell cycle and programmed cell death, cell cycle events, molecular events in plant, and animals. He mechanisms of cell division. Cell mobility. Cell death, apoptosis, and extra cellular matrix, control of cell division, cell growth and apoptosis. The cytoskeleton, the self assembly and dynamic structure of cytoskeleton filaments, how cells regulate their cytoskeleton filaments, molecular motors, the cytoskeleton, and cell behavior. Microtubule motors and movements. Cell-cell interaction. Cell adhesion proteins tight and gap junction, plant cell adhesion and plasmodesmata. Techniques for cell study different types of microscopy, cell fractionation methods, X-rays diffraction, and NMR spectroscopy, histochemistry, microtomy FISH, GISH. Energy conversion, in mitochondria, and chloroplast. Electron transport chain, and their protein pumps. The genetic system of mitochondria and plastids, the evolution of electron transport chains. Transport of nutrient, icons and macromolecules across membranes. Single transduction, mechanism and cellular response to environmental signals. Biosynthesis of proteins in eukaryotic cells. Co and post translation modification, intracellular protein traffic. Protein localization, synthesis of secretary and membrane proteins. Cellular basis of differentiation and development- mitosis, gametogenesis, and fertilization, development in drosophila and Arabidopsis. PM5 spatial and temporary regulation of gene expression. Biostatics brief description, and tabulation of data, and its graphical representation, measures of central ,tendency, and dispersion, median, made ,range, standard deviation, idea of two types of errors, and levels of significance.




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