Content Navigator

Subscribe by Email



 

 

 

      

                                                                                                      

 

 

INTRODUCTION-

 

     Developmental biology is a great field for scientists who want to integrate in different levels of biology. We can take a problem study it on the chemical and molecular levels (e.g.,  how do the factors activating their transcription interact with one another on the DNA?), on the tissue and cellular levels (Which cells are able to make globin, and how does globin mRNA leave the nucleus?), on the organ and organ system levels (How do the capillaries form in each tissue, and how are they instructed to branch and connect?), and even at the ecological and evolutionary levels (How do differences in globin gene activation enable oxygen to flow from mother to fetus, and how do environmental factors trigger the differentiation of more red blood cells?).

 

    Developmental biology is one of the highest growing and most exciting fields in biology, creating a framework that integrates molecular biology, physiology,  neurobiology, immunology, ecology,cell biology, anatomy, cancer research, and evolutionary biology. The study of development has become essential for understanding any other area of biology.The development of a new life is a spectacular process or  represents a masterpiece of temporal and spatial control of gene expression. Developmental genetics studies the effect that genes have in phenotype, given normal or abnormal epigenetic parameters. The findings of developmental biology can help to understand developmental abnormalities that cause down syndrome. An understanding of the specialization of cells during embryogenesis has provided information on how stem cells specialize into specific tissues and organs. This information has led, for example, to the cloning of specific organs for medical purposes. Another biologically important process that occurs during development is apoptosis-programmed cell death or "suicide." Many developmental models are used to elucidate the physiology and molecular basis of this cellular process. Similarly, a deeper understanding of developmental biology can foster greater progress in the treatment of congenital disorders and diseases, e.g. studying human sex determination can lead to treatment for disorders.

 

 

HISTORY-

 

 

    An early version of recapitulation theory, also called the biogenetic law, was put forward by Étienne Serres in 1824–26 as what became known as the "Meckel-Serres Law" which attempted to provide a link between comparative embryology and a "pattern of unification" in the organic world. It was supported by Étienne Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire as part of his ideas of idealism, and became a prominent part of his version of Lamarckism leading to disagreements with Georges Cuvier. It was widely supported in the Edinburgh and London schools of higher anatomy around 1830, notably by Robert Edmond Grant, but was opposed by Karl Ernst von Baer's embryology of divergence in which embryonic parallels only applied to early stages where the embryo took a general form, after which more specialised forms diverged from this shared unity in a branching pattern. The anatomist Richard Owen used this to support his idealist concept of species as showing the unrolling of a divine plan from an archetype, and in the 1830s attacked the transmutation of species proposed by Lamarck, Geoffroy and Grant. In the 1850s Owen began to support an evolutionary view that the history of life was the gradual unfolding of a teleological divine plan, in a continuous "ordained becoming", with new species appearing by natural birth.

 

    In On the Origin of Species (1859), Charles Darwin proposed evolution through natural selection, a theory central to modern biology. Darwin recognised the importance of embryonic development in the understanding of evolution, and the way in which von Baer's branching pattern matched his own idea of descent with modification.

The multidisciplinary approach to the study of development first arose before the turn of the Twentieth Century as an integration of embryology  with cytology (the study of cellular structure and function) and later with genetics (the study of inheritance). The leading cytologists of that time (primarily E.B. Wilson at Columbia University in New York City) recognized that development of the embryo is a manifestation of changes in individual cells and that an understanding of the fundamental principles of development would come from studying cellular structure and function.

     

   Wilson recognized that the characteristics of an organism gradually emerge by utilization of the inherited information that is located on the chromosomes. Therefore, it was important to comprehend the nature of that information and how it is utilized during development. However, in the absence of concrete evidence, there was a great deal of rampant speculation as to how the chromosomes participate in development. The German embryologist Wilhelm Roux was the source of much of this speculation.

     

   Roux believed that the fertilized egg receives substances that represent different characteristics of the organism, which - as cell division occurs - become linearly aligned on the chromosomes and are subsequently distributed unequally to daughter cells. This "qualitative division" fixes the fate of the cells and their descendants because some of the determinants are lost to a cell at each division. Roux (1888) appeared to have confirmed his theories by an experiment he conducted on frog eggs.Another German embryologist, Hans Driesch (1892), approached the problem differently with sea urchin embryos. Instead of destroying one of the cells of the two-celled embryo, he separated the cells from one-another and found that isolated cells at the four-cell stage also develop normally. Thus, Driesch concluded that each cell retains all the developmental potential of the zygote.The conflict between these two opposing views of development has been settled in favor of Driesch's interpretation by numerous cell separation experiments.

 

 

SYLLABUS-

 
Students will be introduced to the fundamental concepts of animal development, including –
 
 
1. Specification'of'cell'fate,'including'commitment'and'early'embryonic'development.
 
2. Organogenesis'and'the'stem'cell'concept.
 
3. Developmental'biology'in'evolution,'ecology'and'medicine.
 
4.And'most'importantly,'they'will'acquire'the'background'necessary'to'continue'to'understand'this'very'rapidly'advancing'field'into'
   the'future

 

The developmental biology is divided in to two sections. witch given below-

 

Section A- plant development:  plant versus animal development, development of plant  embryo , development of sedding , shoot apex organization vegitative and floral apex, root shoot. leaf and flower developmet programmed cell death, aging and senesce. genes and thir role in development, signal transduction in development , cell cycle, cytoskeleton, cell adhesion, and the extra cellular matrix. unicellular models sporulation in Bacillus subtilis mating type switching in yeast aggregation, and culmination in dicyostelium discordeum.

 

Section B- Sex gametes and fertilization, germ line speciation, germ cll migration, gametogenesis, gastruction in invertebrate, and vertebrte, cell lineage, axis specification in vertebrate, and fate of ectoderm, measoderm, and endo derm, cell differntiation mechnism and factors affection if , developmentel grdients in hydra, axial gradients in Drosophila development, orgniogenesis in invertebrates and vertebrates.

 

 

BOOKS-

 

    Essential Developmental Biology, 2nd Edition, is a concise and well-illustrated treatment of this subject for undergraduates. With an emphasis throughout on the evidence underpinning the main conclusions, this book is suitable as the key text for both introductory and more advanced courses in developmental biology.

  • Includes new chapters on Evolution & Development, Gut Development, & Growth and Aging.
  • Contains expanded treatment of mammalian fertilization, the heart and stem cells.
  • Now features a glossary, notated further reading, and key discovery boxes.
  • Illustrated with over 250 detailed, full-color drawings.
  • Accompanied by a dedicated website, featuring animated developmental processes, a photo gallery of selected model organisms, and all art in PowerPoint and jpeg formats (also available to instructors on CD-ROM). 

 

some books of devlopmental biology given bleow-

 

  • Essential Developmental Biology by Jonathan M. W. Slack (Dec 26, 2012).

  • Human Embryology and Developmental Biology: With STUDENT CONSULT Online Access, 5e by Bruce M. Carlson MD PhD (Mar 20, 2013).

  • Principles of Development by Lewis Wolpert and Cheryll Tickle (Dec 1, 2010).

 
 
                                                                                                                   
 
 
FUTURE-
 

     combining fields as diverse as comprative palaeoantology, embryology, molecular phylognetics and genome analysis, the new dicipline of evolutionary developmetal biology aims at explaning how developmental process and mechnismsbecome modified during evolution,and how these modifictions produce change in animal morphologyand body plans.in thenext century this should give us far greater mechanistic insight into how evolution has produced the vast diversity of living orgnisms past and present.Evolutionary biology and developmental biology, or embryology, have had a stormy relationship over the past hundred years. At the end of the nineteenth century and the start of the twentieth, they were inseparable; comparisons of the embryonic development of different species were used as evidence for evolution, while evolutionary history was seen as sufficient explanation for almost every structure or process observed in animal development. 

 
   In early 2009, I was contacted by The Company of Biologists about the position of Editor in Chief of Development. I was still working at the Stowers Institute for Medical Research in the USA, but had just accepted the position of Director of IGBMC, a well-known French biomedical research institute founded by Pierre Chambon. This would be a heavy responsibility, and while I was excited by the prospect of the new editorial role, it was unclear to me whether it was a good time to add to my already heavy workload. Still, I had always liked the journal and felt I could contribute. I had been an editor at Developmental Biology for almost ten years and it was time for a change. The prospect of becoming Development’s Editor in Chief was attractive as it offered the possibility to influence the strategy of the journal. I also felt that the times were changing fast in developmental biology and that someone had to move forwards with some of the policies that Jim Smith had initiated and with new ones. Because I was myself embarking on new scientific ventures involving more stem cell work and quantitative approaches, I believed I was well placed to help promote these new directions within the journal.
 
 
                                            

   

 

     Developmental Biology, Developmental Biology Pdf, Developmental Biology Books, Developmental Biology Gilbert, Developmental Biology Ppt, Developmental Biology Notes, Developmental Biology Syllabus