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               ENZYME TECHONOLY OR ENZYMOLOGY

 

 

 

 

    

 

 

 

 

INTRODUCTION

 

 

     The enzyme industry as we know as we it today is the result of rapid development seen primarily over the past four decades thanks to the evolution of modern biotechnology. Enzymes found in nature have been used since ancient times in the production of food products, such as cheese, sourdough, beer, wine, and vinegar, and in the manufacture of commodities such as leather, indigo and linen. All of the process relied on either enzymes produced by spontanesly growing microbes or enzymes present in added preparations such as calves ‘rumen or papaya fruit. The enzymes were, accordingly, not used in any pure or well characterized form. The development of fermentation process t during the later part of the last century, aimed specifically at the production of enzyme by use of selected production strains, made it possible to manufacture enzyme as purified, well characterized preparation even on a large scale. This development allowed the introduction of enzyme into true industrial products and process, for example. , with in the detergent textile and starch industries. The use of recombinant gene technology has further improved manufacturing process and enabled the commercialization of enzymes that could previously not be produced. Further more, the latest developments in modern biotechnology, introducing protein engineering and directed evolution, have further revolutionized the development of industrial enzymes. These advances have made it possible to provide tailor- made enzymes displaying new activities and adapted to new process conditions, enabling a further expansion of their industrial use. The majority of currently used industrial enzymes are hydrolytic in action, being used for the degradation of various natural substances. Protease remains the dominant enzyme type, because of their extensive use in the detergent and dairy industries. Various carbohydrates, primarily amylases and celluloses, used in industries such as the starch, textile, detergent, and baking industries, represent the second largest group.

 

 

     Enzymes catalyzed chemical reaction with great speficity and rate enhancements. These reactions are the basis of the metabolism of all living organisms, and provide tremendous opportunities for industry to carry out elegant, efficient and economical biocatalytic conversions, in the broadest sense, enzyme technology can be seen as the applications of free enzymes and whole cell biocatalysts in the production of goods and services. A more narrow definition limits enzyme technology to the technological concepts that allow the use of enzymes in competitive large –scale bioprocess. Enzyme technology is an interdisciplinary field, recognized by the organization for economic cooperation and development (OECD) as an important component of sustainable industrial development. its application range from straightforward industrial processes to pharmaceutical discovery and development.

 

 

HISTORY

 

 

      Enzymes are proteins that catalyze chemical reactions, both biosynteheticand degardative, occurring in living cells. The term “enzyme” was introduced by kuhne in 1878, although the first observation of enzyme activity inn a test tube was reported by payen and persoz much earlier in 1833. During 1890s fisher suggested the “lock and key” model of enzyme action, while a mathematical model of enzyme action was proposed by michaelis and menten in 1913. In 1926, summer crystalised for the first time an enzyme. The transition state theory of enzyme action was put forth by Pauling in 1948, and in 1951 Pauling and Corey discovered the alpha helix and beta sheet structures of enzymes. Sanger, in 1953, determined the amino acid sequence of a protein (insulin). In 1986, coch discovered catalytic RNA (ribozyme), while Lerner and Schultz developed catalytic antibodies (abzyme). Enzyme activities are exploited in an isolated and purified state. Purified enzymes are employed in industrial process, medicine, research and recombinant DNA technology, the total business in enzyme being over a billion dollars annually. The bulk, nearly one third, of the enzymes is used for cheese production and in detergent.

 

 

 

       

 

 

 

 

ENZYME TECHNOLOGY IN BRIEF

 

 

     Enzyme technology is a major field of biotechnology witch is completed in a deep description. There are many several points to study enzyme technology in briefly.-

 

 

     Principle of thermodynamics, first and second law, concept of free energy high energy compounds, amino acids, and peptides, classification, chemical reaction, and physical properties. Proteins classification, hierarchy in structure, ramchandran map, protein sequencing, glycol and lipoprotein structure and function. Sugar classification and reaction, poly saccharine types, structural features, methods for compositional analysis. Lipids classification, structure and function , glycerol phospholipids, cholesterol and its biosynthesis, polynucleotide’s, biosynthesis of purine and pyrimidines , de-novo and salvage pathway. Secondary metabolites in living systems; alkaloids, steroids, and flavonoids, macromolecules and super molecular assemblities like membrane, ribosomes, and chromosomes.

 

 

     Enzymes and coenzymes, classification, enzyme inhibition, enzyme kinetics, michalis menten equation, km value, kinetics of bi-bi substrate, regulation of enzyme activity, feed back inhibition, and allosteric control. Enzyme catalysts in solution, effect of organic solvents on enzymes, immobilization of enzyme and its application, determination of active sites. Analytical technique in  bio chemistry ion exchange, liquid chromatography, GLC, HPLC, electrophoresis including 2Dpage spectrum photometry, beer and lambert law , types of detectors, physical techniques in structural analysis, UV, IR, NMR, LASER/RAMAN, spectroscopy X-ray crystallography and ultra centrifugation.protin and nucleic acid data bases, structural comparison at secondary and tertiary levels, computer aided drug designing, computational techniques in structural analysis, nano particle.

 

 

 

IMPORTANCE AND SCOPE 

 

 

     Enzymes have wide variety of application in industry, medicine, medical research, etc. some the importance are briefly discussed here (1) in solution (2) in biphasic system (3) of immobilized enzyme (4) biosensors, etc are broad importance and scoped areas. In detergent industry represent the largest industrial scope of enzymes amounting to 25 to 30 percent of the total sales of enzyme .the enzymes in detergent must be cost effective, safe to use and be able to perform the task in the presence of anionic and nonionic detergent, soaps, oxidants, etc. at pH between 8  and 10.5. Enzymes constituents only 0.4-0.8 present crude enzymes by weight of detergents. The chief enzymes used are proteases, alpha amylase and cellulose.etc.

 

 

     Alkaline protease are used to remove hair from hides, this is safer and more pleasant than the traditional method using sodium sulphate. Dehaired hides are processed or bated often using pancreatic enzymes to increase their suppleness and softness in appearances. Bating in necessary for the production of soft leather clothing.

 

 

     Wool fibers are covers with overlapping scales pointing towards the tip; this favors moments of the fiber away from the tip and is considered to lead to shrinkage. This problem is successful overcome by a partial digestion of the scales by papain, this process also gives the wool a silky appearance and adds to its value. However the process is no more in use due to economic reasons, but is likely to be initiated again with the availability of cheaper enzyme.

 

 

     A typical waste cellulosic material is cellulose, the remainder being mostly lignin and pentose in roughly equal quantities. Therefore, a mixture of enzymes is needed for its degradation. The concerned enzymes are relatively unstable, have low activity against native lignocelluloses, and show both substrate and product inhibition. Enzymes importance in medicine are as extensive as in industry some of these are many mainly. Pancreatic enzymes mainly have been used in digestive disorders since nineteenth century.

 

   Enzyme Technology, Enzyme Biotechnology, Enzymology, Enzymology Books, Enzyme Technology Books, Enzyme Technology Notes, Biological Macromolecules