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     Man has always lost and continues to lose punitive quantities of food due to microbial activity. And, ironically, it is in the sector of foods and beverages that the microbes were first gainfully employed to produce unique and more useful products, e.g., bread, cheese, butter, curd, wines, etc., even before the existence of microbes become known, later, pure cultures of microbes were isolated and improved for specific application in processing of food and beverages. Still later, purified enzymes and immobilized cells began to be used. More recently, microbial biomass production has been developed into an industrial activity to obtain rich food/feed supplement. A verity of food are produced by fermentation , mainly in Asia and Africa but some of the process are now used worldwide, it was noted that natural growth of certain microbes on grain, mostly cereals, improved their flavor, texture and nutrition value. This promoted detailed studies on the various conditions required for obtaining quality products. Later, the microbes were isolated and their strains were improved. Most fermented foods are produced by solid substrate fermentation, and several of them are processed on an industrial sale these process are called koji in Japan, some of the koji processes have been adopted in the west as well, e.g. Temph.a food additives is define as a substance or a mixture of substance either than a base food stuff witch is present in a food as a result of any aspect of process sing, storage or packaging. Basically food additives include to types of additives one is intentional and other is unintentional additives. Some concentrated dairy products are whole milk, sweetened condensed milk, condensed butter milk, condensed whey, etc. and in dried dairy products are milk powder, whey powder, whey protein concentrates, etc.



     Milk is an excellent culture medium for many kinds of microbes, being high in moisture, nearly neutral in pH and rich in microbial foods. A pitiful supply of food for energy is present in the form of milk sugar. Many types of microbes present in milk like acid forming bacteria, alkali forming, gas forming, proteolyses bacteria, etc.witch affected its quality and nature.cleanning and sanitization of dairy equipments or maintenance of dairy equipment is cleaning or washing of dairy equipment implies the removal of “soil” from the surface t of each machine. Sanitization (also referred to as sterilization) implies the destruction of all pathogenic and almost all non- pathogenic microbes from equipment surface. Detergent or cleaning/washing compounds are substances capable of assisting cleaning.







Fermentation is perhaps the most ancient biotechnological discovery; over 10,000 years ago mankind was producing wine, beer, vinegar, and bread using microbes, primarily yeasts. Yogurt was produced by lactic acid bacteria in milk and molds were used to produce cheese. These processes are still in use today for the production of modern foods, however, the cultures that are used have been purified and often genetically refined to maintain the most traits and highest and quality of the products. Industrial fermentation in 1897, the discovery that enzymes from yeast can convert sugar to alcohol lead to industrial process for chemical such as butanol, acetone and glycerol. Fermentation process is still in use today in many modern biotech organizations, often for the production of enzymes to be used in pharmacy process, environmental remediation and other industrial process. In food preservation is drying, salting, and freezing foods to prevent spoilage by microbes were practical long before anyone really understood why they worked over even fully knew what caused the food to spoil in the first place. Some historical development described blew-



  • In 1521 Aztecs harvested algae from lakes as a source of food.
  • In 1980 Rank Hovis McDougall receives permission to market fungal food for human consumption in UK. The US Supreme Court rules in diamond v. Chakrabarty that genetically engineered microbes can be patented.
  • In 1990 Genpharm international inc. created the first transgenic dairy cow. The cow was used to produce human milk proteins for infant formula.
  • In 1994 the first genetic engineered food product , the flavr savr tomato, gained FDA approval.










     Food and dairy technology is a major field of biotechnology witch is completed in a deep description. There are many several points to study food and dairy technology in briefly.-



     Microbial role in food process, operations, and production, new protein food like mushroom, food yeasts, algae, proteins. Fermentation as a method for preparing and preserving foods. Food additives like coloring, flavors’, and vitamins. Microbes and their use for production of fermented foods, and beverages, picking, alcoholic beverages, cheese, sour, kart, idali, vinegar. Deoxygenating and desugaring by glucose oxides, beer mashing and cheese making by protease, catalytic actions in food processing, classification of fruit juice, post harvest technology, and process of food preservation. Milk definition, composition, chemical and functional properties of milk, components, physiochemical properties of milk proteins, aggregation of casein, micelles, factors affecting milk composition, milk secretion, and lactation. Microbes important in dairy science, technology. Microbial spoilage of milk, hydrolytic rancidity in milk, and milk products, auto oxidation of milk fats, and affect on milk quality.

Milk processing operations , cream and cream characteristics’ , manufacture of yoghurt, and fermented milk products, ice cream manufacture , butter making technology, technology of cheese production, concentration milk processing, and dried milk powered. Milk quality control sanitation in the dairy plant, adulteration of milk, dairy equipment maintained, and waste disposal.






     The fermented food offer the many advantages like improved flavors, elimination of undesirable flavor, improvement in the texture of food , enhanced nutrition value (higher levels of proteins, minerals, vitamins, and even antibiotics), increased digestibility and reduced cooking time. Some of the fermented foods are used as valuable supplements in preparation of certain dishes. For examples temph is a protein rich, good flavored, fermented food it is used as meat supplement in Europe and USA. Food industries utilize a variety of enzymes for processing of various foods, e.g., production of various types of syrups from starch or sucrose , meat/ proteins processing using proteases, removal of glucose and or molecular oxygen using glucose oxides and catalyses , use of lactase in dairy industry ,and use of enzymes in fruit juice and brewing industries.



     Microbial biomass has been eaten by man science time immemorial either directly as food, e.g., mushrooms, or as a part of the fermented foods. Mushrooms are fruiting bodies of certain basidiomycetous fungi; some of the fruiting bodies are edible, while many are poisonous and no edible. Mushrooms have pleasant flavor and are rich in proteins and other nutrients, and are eaten directly, cooked in soups, with meats or made into a curry. In contrast, biomass produced by unicellular and multicellular organisms like bacteria, yeast, filamentous fungi and algae is processed and used as human foods or animal feed supplement. This biomass in called single cell protein as it is rich in protein.



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