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      The use of biological agents or their components to convert relatively diffuse and inconvenient to use sources of energy e.g. Biomass and sunlight, into more energy dense and convenient to use fuels, e.g., methane, ethanol, butanol, biodiesel, and hydrogen, constitutes, fuel biotechnology. Biomass is the total cellular dry weight or organic material produced by an organism (usually from carbon dioxide and sunlight) while biologically produced fuels are usually called biofuels. Often biologically generated hydrogen , methane, ethanol, butanol, and diesel are refereed to as biohydrogen, biomethanes, (or biogas), biobutanol, and biodiesel, respectively. In general biofuels are aimed for use in transport as a substitute for the nonrenewable and rapidly declining fossil fuels derived from petroleum. However, the ultimate source of energy for both petroleum derived fuels and biofuels is sun, and both of them are derived from biomass.initially , biomass was the only source of energy available to and used by man. But the development of fossile fuel rapidly reduced the use of biomass as energy source, especially in the developed countries, which are also the largest user of energy. Biomass still contributes a large part of the energy need of developing countries, while only about 2 percent of energy used by developed countries is directly obtained from biomass. More recently economic and industrial development in the developing countries have contributed an enhanced the use of fossil fuels, which in any case are non renewable and limited in supply that is declining rapidly. These considerations have forced man to seriously consider the option of biofuels as a replacement for fossil fuels.



     Most of the biofuels derived from the biomass which is renewable, low cost, and locally available entailing little or no commitment of foreign exchange. In general they lead to relatively low carbon dioxide emission than do fossil fuels. They do not contribute to environmental pollution due to gases like sulfur dioxide etc. the substrate is often a waste, including municipal waste, use of such material for biofuel production not only generates a more valuable product from low cost substrate but also helps in cleaning up in environment.






     Energy resource and utilization or fuel biotech. a major field of biotechnology witch is completed in a deep description. There are many several points to study fuel biotech. in briefly.-


     Introduction of biofuels , and their features, energy crops- wood , sugar and starch crops, hydrocarbon producing crops, modes of utilization of biomass, biogas, bioethanol, ethanol recovery, biobutanol, biodiesel, biohydrogen, carbon sequestration, gasification technologies, hybrid fuels, biorefineries, conversation technologies, etc.









  • More efficient process especially continous processes, must be developed to reduce the cost of production.


  • To achive the above, organisms with higher product yield, and greater product tolerance must be developed.



  • Efficient process to utilize; low cost substrate for biofuel production are urgently needed.


  • The continues process of biofuels production can not allow fore continuous selection programmers to maintained the desirable feature of microbes, in any case , such selection programmes add to the production cost. There fore, it is important to develop genetically stable high producing microbes.



  • The source of biomass or their derivatives to be used as substrate should be indentified and their cheap and abundant supply should be ensured. The biomass may be obtained from fast growing or high producing plant species, called energy crops, suited for this purpose. Genetic and agronomic improvements of such crops would reduce biofuel production cost.
  • Increasing the substrate utilization ability of excellent ethanol producer like yeast and Z. mobilis.


  • Increasing the ethanol production ability of bacteria capable of utilizing cellulose, hemicelluloses, and pentose. etc.



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