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                                            GENETIC ENGINEERING
 
 
 
 
 
 
                
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
INTRODUCTION-
 
 
 
What is the genetic engineering? 
 
 
 
     That is the field of science is a highly complicated and modern branch in which involves a major  range of techniques and tools  used in changing the genetic material in the DNA code in a living organism. 'Genetic Engineering' means the careful modification of the characters of an particular organism by the manipulate to its genetic material. Genetic engineering comes under the major tree of Biotechnology. There is a great careeer in this field as the demand for genetic reserchers or experts are growing in India as well as abroad. Genetic engineering or gene modification means manipulation of this genetic material. we can manipulate to a particular change in organisms as e.g. fish, scorpions, bacteria and viruses have been inserted into food plants in genetic engineering process.Gene modification or Genetic engineering is based on an theory. It stated that one gene carries one property. This is not so. The effect or expression  of a gene is dependent on its location, condition, and its interaction with others genes. so insertion of foreign genes is bound to produce unpredictable surprises including, in the worst case, the reviews of harmful matters in the food.Moreover, the method of gene modification is so crude that it is impossible to decide beforehand where the inserted genes will stick in the master program. This adds further to the unpredictability of the outcome of artifical gene insertion (genetic engineering).In harmful of this inevitable unpredictability, the sequrity of genetic engineered food has not been tested in such a way that unexpected harmful substances are ruled out of this.
 
 
 
 
 
Defination-
 
 
    Genetic engineering or gene modification is the process or method of manually adding new genome to an organism. The aim is to add one or more new traits that are not already found in that organism. as of transgenic organisms presently on the market include plants with resistance to some insects or pathogenes, plants that can tolerate pestisides, or herbicides, and crops with modified oil content.
 
 
 
 
 
 
HISTORY-
 
 
Before gene modification time:
 
 
 
1900s- An European plant researchers make to using sir Gregor Mendel's genetic theory technique to manipulate and improve plant species. This also called "classical selection." An onetype of plant of one variety is manipulate with a related plant to create several or one desired characteristics.
 
 
 
Today or current genetic engineering-
 
 
1953- Mister James Watson with Francis Crick publish their research of the structure of DNA in three-dimensional double helix . This research will eventually lead to the ability of researchers to identify and "splice" genes from one kind of organism into the DNA of another kind of organism.
 
 
1973-Mr.Herbert Boyer and  his co worker Stanley Cohen joint their research to produce the first successful trangenic organism.
 
 
1980- In court of U.S. ,Diamond v. Chakrabarty rules that genetically altered life forms can be patented. The decision allows the an Oil Company to patent an oil-eating microbes.
 
 
1982- The U.S. Food and Drug Administration give permission to the first genetically engineered drug, called Genentech's Humulin, a form of human insulin produced by specific bacteria. This is the first user product developed through modern bioengineering.
 
 
1986- The first field tests of genetically modified plants (tobacco) are conducted in Belgium.
 
 
1987- The first field tests of genetically modified crops (tobacco and tomato) are conducted in the U.S.
 
 
1992- Calgene's Favr Savr tomato, engineered to remain firm for a longer period of time, is permit for commercial production by the US Department of Agriculture and science.
 
 
1992-The FDA declares that genetically engineered foods are "not inherently dangerous" and do not require special regulation. 
 
 
1994-The European Union's first genetically engineered crop, tobacco, is approved in France country.
 
 
2000- International Biosafety Protocol is permitted by group of 130 countries at the Convention on Biological Diversity in Montréal, Canada. The protocol agrees upon labeling of genetically engineered crops, but still needs to be ratified by 50 nations before it goes into effect.
 
 
2002- Patent law approved for biotechnology industries to protect their ‘intellectual property.
 
 
2003- Human genome project developed and sequenced.
 
 
 
 
 GENETIC ENGINEERING IN PLANT OR AGRICULTURE-
 
 
 
    In this include improvement of crop plants by genetic manipulation.Traditionally, crop manipulation  was accomplished by selecting the best looking plants/seeds (physical based) and saving them to plant for the next year’s crop.Once the science of genetics make good understood, plant breeder experts used what they knew about the genes of a plant to select for specific desirable traits. This type of genetic manipulation, called traditional plant breeding,improves  the genetic composition of plants by making crosses and selecting new superior genotype combinations. Traditional mathods has been going on for hundreds of years and is still commonly used today.Plant breeding is an important tool, but it also has some limitations. First, is manipulation can only be done in mid of  two plants that can sexually mate with each other. This limits the new traits that can be added to those that already exist in that species. Second, is when plants are mated, (crossed), many traits are transferred along with the trait of interest involved traits with undesirable effects on yield potential.
 
 
Purposeful addition of a foreign gene or genes to the genome of an specific organism or microbes. A gene safe information that will give the organism a trait. Genetic engineering is not bound by the drawbacks of traditional plant breeding methods . Genetic engineering physically removes the DNA from one organism and transfers the gene(s) for one or a few traits into another. Since bredding is not necessary, the 'sexual' barrier between species is overcome. Therefore, traits from any living organism can be transferred into a plant. This method is also more specific in that a single trait can be added to a plant. some several steps used in genetic engineering of crop plants are DNA Extraction. Gene Cloning,  Gene Design, Transformation , Backcross Breeding, etc.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
                                      
 
 
 
 
 
 
It may be possible to make genetically modified plants to be more resistant to the varieties of several diffrent climate, to grow on marginal land prone to drought, acid conditionserosion, high salt content. Potentially this could greatly assist food creation in vulnerable areas of the world wide where agriculture is on the margins of viability. Unfortunately this is a very adverse and specific process. Although there are some Third World examples, to date most of the research in this area seems to be directed not to developing country situations but to western crop agriculture. An large amount of food is presently lost by  degradation or lost during transport and storage. The main advantages are production convenience and a slightly cheaper price. The "requirement" for such products is partly a function of our centralized supermarket production system gaining food from wherever it is cheapest, often at considerable distances. It also reflects consumer expectations, largely created by the supermarket system, for having out-of-season fruits and vegetables from anywhere in the world, and for high grade appearance, instead of basing or food on what is available from locally production.
 
 
 
BOOKS- 
 
 
 
These following's  are several books to study the genetic engineetring in  majorly-
 
 
 
1An Introduction to Genetic Engineering by Dr Desmond S. T. Nicholl (Jun 23, 2008)
 
 
2Genetic Engineering (Opposing Viewpoints) by Noël Merino (Mar 18, 2013)
 
 
3The Case against Perfection: Ethics in the Age of Genetic Engineering by Michael J. Sandel (Sep 30, 2009)
 
 
4 Transhumanist Dreams and Dystopian Nightmares: The Promise and Peril of Genetic Engineering by Maxwell J. Mehlman (Aug
 
6, 2012)
 
 
5 Principles of Gene Manipulation and Genomics by Sandy B. Primrose and Richard Twyman (Feb 17, 2006)
 
 
5Genetic Roulette: The Documented Health Risks of Genetically Engineered Foods by Jeffrey M. Smith (Jan 31, 2007)
 
 
 
 
SCOPE-
 
 
   
     Genetic engineering is the great modearn step to human development or for benifits.In the process of genetic modification, select genes are removed or genes from other life forms are inserted into life forms . With genetic engineering, disorders can be reduced or eliminated  and human life in general can be improved or developed.Genetic engineering has many significance to human health.New tissues and organs are being grown to replace ones that are malfunctioning done by tissue engineering. In addition, genetic engineering can help us to produced best effctive vaccines to more diseases. also stated that “ genetic engineering is helping us improve existing vaccines and create new vaccines against infectious agents, such as the viruses that cause cervical cancer and genital herpes.” The use of genetic engineering has many significance to human health and more are being discovered over time.genetic modification also has many signifcant role for people as well. Genetic engineering is a sound economic investment that will bring large profit. Genetic engineering can also help with many forms of species management like as  control to past. they insects that carry disease will also be targeted through genetic manipulation to control their populations or community . It is imaged that malaria will soon be eliminated by this way.” With genetic engineering, microbes can be used to create several materials.In addition, researchers suggest that “producers will use engineered microbs to produce commodity and specialty of chemicals, as well as  vaccines, and drugs, medicines.” Genetic engineering can used society in many practical ways and can bring society in to the up coming time.
 
 
 Some people believe that genetic manipulation or biotechnology  will have many several  limited  to help with genetic disorders.all medical procedures must be done on an particular basis and there is no have proof to suggest that will be limited so that argument is a invalid form. Some also believe that genetic manipulation could have an effect on future generations. the risk of a harmful change is overcome for it would be identical to the change the parent received and therefore, there would be no harmful to the child. In addition, it is believed that genetic engineering will lead to abuse and inequality. ‘Genetic Engineering’ means the deliberate manipualtion of the characters of an particular organism by the manipulation of its genomic material. There is a great career in this field as the demand for genetic engineers are growing in India as well as abroad. the basic structural and functional unit of all living matter is a unic cell,  While some organisms are single celled, others like human or plant are made up of a lot more cells.
 
 
The DNA governs cell growth and is responsible for the transmission of genetic information from one generation to the next.biotechnology aims to re-arrange the genes using artificial process. The work of a genetic experts involves extracting the DNA out of one particular organism, changing it using by several chemicals or several radiation and subsequently putting it back into the same or a different organism. For eg: segments of DNA from one species is taken and put into another species. They also study how traits and characteristics are transmitted through the generation to generation, and how genetic disorders are caused. Their research involves researching the causes and discovering potential cures if any.Genetic engineering have specialisations related to all organisms.Genetic modifications in plants or in humans  may be to improve fixed natural characteristics of value, to increase resistance to disease or damage or disorders  and to develop new characteristics etc. It is used to change the size , structure  etc of plants otherwise known as GM (Genetically Modified) foods.
 
 
 
              
 
 
 
 
 
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