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     From birth we are exposed to a continuous stream of microbes that have the potential to wreak havoc on our bodily process. Without effective protective mechanisms, each of us would soon succumb to disease caused by microorganisms or to the harmful effects of foreign substances produced by various plants and bacteria. In the battle with microbial invaders, humans and other vertebrates protect themselves by a complex array of defensive measures collectively termed the immune system. Innate immunity depends on a number of barriers that are effective against a wide variety of pathogens. This nonspecific form of immunity is bolstered and greatly extended by adaptive immunity, which is specific for particular microbes or foreign molecules. The key cells in adaptive immunity are B-cells and T-cells. Two major populations of T-cells exist; T helper cells and cytotoxic T cells. T helper cells express the membrane glycoprotein’s called CD4; when activated, these cells differentiated in to effectors cells that can destroy altered self cells, including cells infected by virus and tumor cells. An individual contain a large number of immmunocompetent clones of B and T lymphocytes. The cells in each clone are capable of recognizing a particular foreign molecule, or antigen. B cells interact with antigen through their membrane bound immunoglobulin (antibody), and T cells interact with antigen through their T cells receptor. After the recognition of antigen, lymphocytes proliferate and differentiate, leading them to produce secreted antibodies, which bind to the antigen and help eliminate it (humoral response), and to generate cells that can destroy the invading pathogen. When we are first exposed to an invading pathogen, we normally experience some of the early symptoms of an infection because the immune system needs some time to respond and to destroy to the pathogen. However, once we have been exposed to a particular pathogen, our immune system ‘remembers’ the encounter and can response much more quickly to subsequent encountered with it.



     Although no evidence for adaptive immunity has been found in invertebrate species, different forms of immunity may be found in diverse invertebrate species such as insects and even in plants. These mechanisms, which often utilize elements common to innate immune system of vertebrates, protect against harmful bacterial or fungal agents. Although the immune system in its normal function protects from harmful attacks from without some times the system turns against the host, causing symptoms that range from discomfort to debilitating disease or  even death.






  • In 1901 by Emil von Behring in Germany for serum anti toxins.
  • In 1905 by Robert Koch in Germany for cellular immunity to tuberculosis.
  • In 1908 by Elie Metchnikoff and Paul Ehrlich in Russia for role of phagocytosis and antitoxins in immunity.
  • In 1913 by Charles Richet in France for anaphylaxis.
  • In 1919 by Jules Bordet in Belgium for complement mediated bacteriolysis.
  • In 1930 by Karl Landsteiner in united state for discovery of human blood groups.
  • In 1951 by max Theiler in South Africa for development of yellow fever vaccine.
  • In 1957 by Daniel bovver in Switzerland for antihistamines.
  • In 1960 by F. Macfarlane burnet peter Medawar in Australia and Great Britain for discovery of acquired immunological tolerance.
  • In 1972 by Rodney R. porter and Gerald m. Edelman in Great Britain and United States for chemical structure of antibodies.
  • In 1977 by Rosalyn R. Yalow in United States for development of radioimmunoassay.
  • In 1980 by George Snell, jean Dausset, Baruj Benacerraf in united states, France, United States, for major histocompatiblity complex.
  • In 1984 by Cesar Milstein, Georges f. kohler, Niles k. Jerne in great Britain, Germany, Denmark for monoclonal antibody ,immune regulatory theories.
  • In 1987 by susumu tonegawa in Japan for gene rearrangement in antibody production.
  • In 1991 by E. donnall Thomas, Joseph Murray in United States for transplantation immunology.
  • In 1996 by peter c. Doherty Rolf m. zinkernagel in Australia, Switzerland for the specificity of the cell mediated immune response.






     Immunology is a major field of biotechnology witch is completed in a deep description. There are many several points to study immunology in briefly.-


     Immune system, antigens, epitopes, haptens and the study of antigenicity, immunoglobulin’s, B- cell receptor, organization and expression of immunoglobulin genes, antigen and antibody reactions, antibody, and enzyme linked immune sorbent assay, western blotting, immunoprecipitation, flow cytometry and fluorescence, major histocompatiblity complex, antigen processing and presentation, T-cell receptors, cytokines, the complement system, hypersensitive reactions.etc.



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