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          INDUSTRIAL BIOTECHNOLOGY

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

INTRODUCTION

 

 

     In industrial biotechnology the term industrial microbial logy is, use of microbes to obtain a product or service of economic value constituents industrial microbiology or “any process mediate by or involving microbes in which a product of economic value is obtained ‘is called fermentation. The term industrial and fermentation are virtually synonymous in their scope, objective, and activities. The microbial product may be microbial cells, microbial bio mass, and components of microbial cells, intracellular or extracellular enzymes or chemicals produced by the microbes utilizing medium constituents or the provided substrate. the services generated by the microbes range from the degradation of  organic waste, detoxification of industrial wastes and toxic compounds , the degradation of petroleum to manage oil spills, etc. industrial microbiology also encompasses activities like production of bio-control agents, inoculants used as bio-fertilizers, etc. obviously , the scope and activities of industrial microbiology are too extensive to be covered in any detail in a book like this, the activities in industrial microbiology begin with the isolation of microbes of culture mass culture using bioreactors, and usually end with the recovery of products and their purification.

 

 

     Industrialization is the process of social and economic change whereby a human group is transformed a pre-industrial society into an industrial one. It is a part of a wider modernization process, there social change and economic development are closely related with technological innovation, particularly with the development of large scale energy and it metallurgy production. Industrialization also introduces a form of philosophical change, where people obtain a different attitude towards their perception of nature. There is considerable literature on the factors facilitating industrial modernization and enterprise development. Key positive factors identified by researchers have ranged from favorable nature resource of various kinds, to plentiful supplies of relatively low-cost, skilled and adaptable labor. For many centuries, man has been exploiting microbes for the production of foods (bread, cheese, yoghurts, and pickles) and beverages like beer and wine. However, the organized use of microbes for industrial purpose is about one and a half century old. The word fermentation originates from a Latin verb fervere which literally to boil. During the production of alcohol (the first truly industries process), the gas bubbles appears at the surface of the boiling liquid. Fermentation in a strict sense is a biological process that occurs in the absence of oxygen (anaerobic). This definition however, is no more valid, since the term industrial fermentation is now used for large scale cultivation of microbes, even though most of them are aerobic. Bioprocess technology is a more recent usage to replace fermentation technology. Bio-processing broadly involvers a multitude of enzyme catalyzed reactions carried out by living cells for industrial purpose. Some workers prefer to use bioprocess technology for industrial use of higher plant and animal cells while fermentation technology is confined to microbial use. This demarcation is however, not very rigid.

 

 

HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT

 

 

     Microbes have been employed for product generation, e.g. Wines, bread, etc., since thousands of years, but these activities were purely art. The science of industrial biotechnology is only about 150 years old. The observations of microbes by Leeuwenhoek were   published by the royal society, London in 1677, and later in 1684. The experiments of spallanzani (1n 1799) and those of Schwann (in 1837) not only disproved the idea of spontaneous generation of microbes, but also provided a  mean of sterilization of liquid (by heat) and air , respectively, Schwann findings also suggested that alcoholic fermentation was due to a fungus or mold, e.g. Yeast, and inoculation resulted in quicker fermentation. But microbiology is widely considered to have begun in 1857 when Pasteur reported his studies on lactic acid fermentation, including the microscopic features of the microbes and a suitable medium for the process. In 1860, Pasteur shoe\wed that growth and physiology of yeast (and hence the accumulation of the fermentation products , in this case, alcohol ) differs depending on the presences’ or absence of oxygen, this phenomenon is known as Pasteur effect and is applicable to other microbes as well. In 1878, lister described the dilution technique for obtains the pure microbial culture of lactic acid bacterium a simpler and more effective technique of obtain pure cultures from isolated separate colonies developed on solidified medium was described by Robert Koch in 1881’ this technique is widely followed even today.

 

 

      Some historical development described blew-

 

 

  • Before 6000 B.C. yeast employed to make wine and beer.
  • 4000 B.C. leavened bread produced with the aid of yeast.
  • In et.al. 1876 Louis Pasteur identifies extracted microbes as a cause of failed beer fermentations.
  • In et.al. 1893 fermentation process patented by Koch, Pasteur.
  • In et.al. 1897 Eduard Buchner discovered that enzymes extracted from yeast can convert sugar in to alcohol.
  • In et.al. 1912-1914 three important industrial chemical – acetone, butanol, and glycerol were obtained from bacteria.

 

 

 

    

 

 

 

INDUTRIAL BIOTECHNOLOGY IN BRIEF

 

 

    Industrial biotechnology is a major field of biotechnology witch is completed in a deep description. There are many several points to study industrial biotech in briefly.-

 

 

    Introduction, classification of microbial products, microbial process for production of organic acid, solvents, antibiotic, enzymes, polysaccharides, lipids, pigments, and aroma. Equipment and accessories for industrial process ,stability of enzymes, enzyme stabilization by selection and genetic engineering, protein engineering. Reaction environment rebuilding, chemical modification, molecular cross linking, immobilization. Application of enzymes in industries, analytical purpose and medical therapy. Microbial production of therapeutic agents, pharmaceuticals- isolation of interferon cDNA; engineering human interferon and human growth hormone, optimizing gene expression, enzymes- DNAase and alginate lyase against cystic fibrosis. Monoclonal antibodies as therapeutic agents- production of antibodies in E. coli, HIV therapeutic agents vaccines, subunit vaccines- herpes simplex virus, foot and mouth disease, tuberculosis, peptide vaccines, genetic immunization, attenuated vaccines- vector vaccines. Synthesis of commercial products by recombinant microbes, restriction end nucleases, small bio-molecules- L- ascorbic acid, indigo, amino acids, antibiotics, biopolymers. Bio-recombination and biomass utilization, microbial degradation of xenobiotics, commercial production of fructose and alcohol, sllage fermentation, utilization of cellulose.

 

 

    Economically important primary and secondary metabolites,. Production of single cell protein from carbohydrates, n-alkanes, methane and methanol for use in food and feed, liquid and gaseous fuel. Production of beer, wine, vinegar, and distilled beverages, microbial food products.

 

 

IMPORTANCE AND SCOPE 

 

 

     Micro-organisms are being employed, since several decades for the large scale production of a variety of biochemical’s ranging from alcohol to antibiotics, and in processing of foods and feeds. production of useful compounds , e.g., ethanol, lactic acid, glycerin, citric acid, gluconic acid, acetone, etc. produced by microbes, mainly bacteria, from less useful substrate. Production of antibiotics e.g., penicillin, streptomycin, erythromycin, mitomycin, cycloheximide, etc. are produced by fungi, bacteria, and actinomycetes as secondary metabolites. Transformation of less useful and cheaper compounds into more useful and valuable ones, e.g., steroid hormones from sterols, sorbose from sorbitol, etc. generally, by microbes or immobilized enzymes in aerobic fementers. Production of enzymes, e.g., a-amylase, protease, lipases, etc. are from fungi, bacteria etc. for use in detergent, textile, leather, dairy, etc. industries, and in medicines. Single cell proteins (SCP) from bacteria, yeasts, fungi, or algae for human food and animal feed (as supplements). A, in fact , SCP is the total microbial biomass freed from toxins and contaminants, if any. Fuel (mainly ethanol, sometimes biogas) production from cheap, less useful and abundant substrate, e.g. Sugarcane biogases, wood, etc. are produced through fermentation by microbes. Cow dung based biogas being popularized in India’s. Mineral extraction through leaching from low grade ores, eg., copper, uranium etc. due to action of microbes, mainly bacteria.

 

     

      Immobilization of enzymes for their repeated industrial application. – more attractive than the use of whole microbes. Protein / enzymes engineering to change the primary structure of existing proteins/enzymes to make them more efficient, change their substrate specially, eg. Successes with T4 lysozymes, trypsin, subtilisin, lactate dehydro-genease, etc.- extensive use of computers for generating models of proteins molecules. It is hoped to change RuBisCo so as to minimize its affinity for oxygen. Production of immunotoxins by joining a natural toxin with a specific antibody.- these destroy specific cell types; may provides a potent treatment for cancer.

 

 

 

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