Most developments in biotechnology originated for their potential application in health care (both human and animal, but primarily the former). And it is in this sector that the contributions of biotechnology are more frequent, more notable and more rewarding (both financially and psychologically). It is difficult to summaries the whole gamut of contributions in a textbook of limited space; these could be grouped under the following broad heads: (1) disease prevention, (2) disease detection, (3) therapeutic agents, (4) correction of genetic disease, (5) fertility control and (6) forensic medicine. It is aimed to highlight the major developments under each of these categories by using appropriate examples. Biomedical engineering is the application of engineering principles and technique to the medical field. It combines the design and problem solving skills of engineering with medical and biological sciences to improve healthcare diagnosis and treatment. In application of biomedical engineering include- development of biocompatible prostheses, and various diagnostic and therapeutic medical device (e.g. Common imaging equipment such as MRI.). Biotechnology such as regenerative tissue growth. Pharmaceutical drugs and bio-pharmaceuticals.
Medical biotechnology products for therapeutic use include a very range of products. Some products are intended to mimic the human counterpart, whereas other are intended to differ from the human counterpart and may be analogues, chemically modified or novel products (e.g. Single chain or fragment antibody products, gene transfer vectors, tissue engineer’s products.). most of these products are regulated as medicinal products , however the regulatory status of others such as some cell therapies and tissue ;organ based product differs globally and falls with in the borderline between the practice of medicine, medical device and medical products. Medical biotechnology derived pharmaceuticals may be derived from a variety of expression systems such as Escherichia coli , yeast, mammalian, insect or plant cells, transgenic animals or other organisms. The expressed protein or gene may have the identical amino acid or nucleotide sequence as the human endogenous form, or may be intentionally different in sequence to confer some technical advantages such as an optimized pharmacokinetic or pharmacodynamic profile. The glycosylation pattern of protein products is likely to differ from the endogenous human form due to the different glycosylation preferences of the expression system used.
- In et.al. 1869 Johann Meischer isolated DNA from the nuclei of white blood cells.
- In et.al. 1920 Alexander Fleming discovered penicillin.
- In et.al. 1928 yeast grown in large quantities for animal and glycerol.
- In et.al. 1938 proteins and DNA studied by X- ray crystallography.
- In et.al. 1943-1953 Linus Pauling described sickle cell anemia calling it molecular disease cortisone made in large amounts. DNA identified as the genetic material.
- In et.al. 1975 hybridomas which make monoclonal antibodies were first created.
- In et.al. 1977 human growth hormone produced by bacterial cells.
- In et.al. 1978 genetic engineering techniques used to produces human insulin in E.coli by Genentech Inc.
- In et.al. 1979 Genentech Inc produce human growth hormone and two kind of interferon DNA from malignant cells transformed a strain of cultured mouse cells – new tool for analyzing cancer genes.
- In et.al. 1981 monoclonal antibodies receive US approval for use in diagnosis.
- In et.al. 1982 the food and drug administration approves the first biotechnology therapy , a human insulin drug made by Genentech Inc.
- In et.al. 1983 Syntax Corporation received FDA approval for a monoclonal antibody based diagnosis test for Chlamydia trachomatis.
- In et.al. 1984 Chiron crop, announced the first cloning and sequencing of the entire HIV virus genome. Animal interferon’s approval for protection against cattle disease.
- In et.al. 1986 orthoclone OKT3 approved for reversal of acute kidney transplant rejection.
- In et.al. 1987 Genentech Inc received FDA approval to market rt-PA (genetically engineered tissue plasminogen activator) to treat heart attacks.
- In et.al. 1997 a group of Oregon researchers claim to have cloned two Rhesus monkeys. Rituxan the first antibody based therapy for cancer was approved.
- In et.al. 2003 broad institute was founded in Cambridge to give scientists access to the human genome project, and to understand the molecular basis of the diseases.
- In et.al. 2007 Craig C. Mello, a university of Massachusetts researcher, shared the Nobel Prize with Andrew Fire of Stanford University for discovering a special kind of RNA that can shut down individual genes.
MEDICAL BIOTECHNOLOGY IN BRIEF
Medical biotechnology is a major field of biotechnology witch is completed in a deep description. There are many several points to study medical biotech in briefly.-
General introduction to biomedical engineering, application of engineering in medicine. electrical potentials in the human body, neuromuscular system; neurons, synapses and muscles, electrical properties of nerves and muscles, problems and diagnostics, cardiovascular system; anatomy and physiology of heart, ECG and the cardiac cycle, problem and solution to electrical problem in the heart, blood and vascular modeling, hemodynamic, vascular disease management, skeletal system(including prosthetic). Biomaterials and implantable sensors, testing of biomaterials in vitro and in vivo. Excretory, system (including dialysis); renal anatomy and physiology, the nephron, dialysis machine, and mass transport, medical imagining; X- rays, design consideration of X-ray tubes, medical image processing- projections, 3D-3D, CAT, NMR, PET/SPECT. Cellular engineering and genetic engineering- ethical consideration in medical research.
Hypersensitivity, monoclonal antibodies and applications, radio immunoassay, enzyme linked immune sorbent assay, immunoblotting, immunnofloroscence and flow-cytometry, characteristics of infectious disease, herd immunity, disease cycle (source, reservoir, carriers). Transmission of pathogens (air born, contact, transmission and vector transmission). Bacterial disease, general account of fungal disease; mycosis, subcutaneous and deep. General account of viral and protozoan’s disease;, brief account of sexually transmitted diseases.
IMPORTANCE AND SCOPE
The impotency of medical biotechnology to human welfare would become obvious from a perusal of some selected examples. For the protection of human health, production of monoclonal anybodies, DNA and RNA probes(for disease diagnosis), artificial vaccines(for inoculation), rare and highly valuable drugs, such as, human interferon, insulin, etc.(for disease treatment), and the technology for gene therapy(for treatment of genetic disease) are some of the notable achievements. Monoclonal antibodies (used for disease diagnosis, eg. Venereal disease, hepatitis B and other viral disease, cancer, etc.)-produced by hybridoma technology. DNA probe( used for disease diagnosis, e.g. Kalaazar, sleeping sickness, malaria, etc.)- produced by genetically engineered microbes. Recombinant vaccines (cleaner, safer, e.g. Human hepatitis B virus, E. coli vaccine for pig , rabies virus, etc. -produced by genetically engineered microbes. Valuable drugs like human insulin, human interferon, human and bovine growth hormone, etc.-produced by genetically engineered bacteria’s. Gene therapy to cure genetic disease, e.g. Huntington’s chorea, cystic fibrosis-Techniques in advanced stages of development. Babies of specified sex (artificial insemination with X or Y carrying sperms prepared by sperm separation techniques.)- it is feared that this may un-favorably change the sex ratio in the population. Identification of parents/criminals using DNA finger- printing- very accurate and reliable; from even blood or serum stains, hair root etc.
And some other impotency is in disease prevention, disease diagnosis, detection of genetic disease, disease treatment, drug designing, drug delivery and targeting, gene therapy, some perplexing human disease, transplant rejection, fertility control, DNA fingerprinting in forensic medicine, DNA profiling etc.
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