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                                               MOLECULAR BIOLOGY

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

              
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
INTRODUCTION 
 
 
 
 
    Living cells are fundamental building blocks or unit of living organisms. all Cells made up of  a nucleus, mitochondria and chloroplasts, endoplasmatic reticulum, ribosomes, vacuoles, etc.these all also called cell organells. The nucelous is the  important organelle of a living system  because it is houses of  chromosomes which include the DNA. The chromosome is in essence a image of the an organism as it encodes information essential  to synthesize several types of  proteins. Molecular biology experts would like to understand how human chemistry  works with the hope to treat diseases or disorders as cancer, or others. an simpler organisms such as yeasts to understand how human chemistry works. Admittedly, unicellular yeasts are very different from humansnature and chemistry  witch  have about 1017 cells. However, the DNA or genes is similar across all living organisms. For example, humans share about 99% of genes with the chimps. Naturally, we would like to know what information reserved in that 1% of DNA is so critical to fixed all the distinguishing charcters of an human, and we always will try to answer this question in future.
 
 
To study or understanding to biology on molecular level called molecular biology . That field of biology overlaps with other fields of biology and chemistry, particularly genetics and biochemistry. Molecular biology majorly concerns itself with understanding the interactions between the diffrent systems of a living cell, including the interactions between chromosome molecules, RNA and protein biosynthesis (transcrption and translation) as well as learning how these interactions are controlled.
 
 
 
Defination-
 
 
The branch or field of biology that deals with the manipulation of choromosome molecule or an gene  so that it can be sequenced or mutated. If mutated, the DNA is often inserted into the genome of an organism to study the biological effects of the mutation.
 
 
 
 
HISTORY-
 
 
 
   Molecular biology—the name was served by Warren Weaver in 1938 of of the Rockefeller Foundation—was an idea of chemistrical explanations or understanding of life, rather than a coherent discipline. The Mendelian-chromosome theory of heredity witch given by Gregor mendel in the 1910s and the development of atomic theory and quantum mechanics in the 1920s century, such explanations seemed within reach.
 
 
 Mr. Weaver and others  funded research at the intersection of chemistry,biology, and physics, while prominent physicists such as Niels Bohr and Erwin Schrödinger turned their attention to biological speculation. However, in the 1930s century and 1940s century  it was by no means clear which—if any—cross-disciplinary research would bear fruit; work in colloid biophysics , chemistry,and radiation biology, crystallography, and other emerging fields all viewed promising. In 1940, sir George Beadle and Edward Tatum explained the existence of a precise relationship between DNA and proteins.
 
 
In the course of their experiments connecting genetics with biochemistry, they switched from the genetics mainstay insect Drosophila to a more best  model organism, the  Neurospora;(fungus)  the creation and exploitation of new model organisms would become a recurring theme in the maturation of molecular biology. In 1944, Oswald Avery, working at the Rockefeller Institute of New York city, demostrted  that genes are made up of DNA. 
 
 
In 1952, Alfred Hershey and Martha Chase confirmed that the genetic material of the bacteriophage, the virus which infects bacteria, is made up of DNA. In 1953, James Watson and Francis Crick discovered the double helical structure of the DNA molecule. In 1961, Francois Jacob and Jacques Monod demonstrated that the products of certain genes regulated the expression of other genes by acting upon specific sites at the edge of those genes. They also hypothesized the existence of an intermediary between DNA and its protein products, which they called messenger RNA.Between 1961 and 1965, the relationship between the information contained in DNA and the structure of proteins was determined: there is a code, the genetic code, which creates a correspondence between the succession of nucleotides in the DNA sequence and a series of amino acids in proteins.
 
 
 
 
 
TECHNIQUES-
 
 
 Follwing are some approprite techniques of  molecular biology -
 
 
 
1 Expression cloning
 
 
 In this technique, DNA coding for a special protein of interest is cloned (using PCR or other ) into a plasmid (known as an expression vector). A vector has 3 distinctive features: an origin of replication, a selective marker (usually antibiotic resistance), a multiple cloning site (MCS), and a selective marker (usually antibiotic resistance). The origin of replication will have promoter regions upstream from the replication/transcription start site.
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                              
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
2.Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)
 
 
 The polymerase chain reaction or PCR technique is an extremely versatile for copying DNA. In short, PCR permit a single DNA sequence to be copied (millions of times), or altered in predetermined ways. PCR has many variationsin working mathod , like reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) for amplification of RNA, and, more recently, quantitative PCR which allow for quantitative measurement of DNA or RNA molecules.
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                          
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
3.Gel electrophoresis
 
 
 Basic principle is of gel electrophoresis  that DNA, RNA, and proteins can all be separated by means of an electric field. In agarose gel electrophoresis, DNA and RNA can be separated on the basis of size by running the DNA through an agarose gel. Proteins can be separated on the basis of size by using an SDS-PAGE gel, or on the basis of size and their electric charge by using what is known as a 2D gel electrophoresis.
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                              
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
4 Macromolecule blotting and probing
 
 
 The word  western, northern,,and eastern blotting are derived from what initially was a molecular biology that played on the term Southern blotting, after the technique described by sir Edwin Southern for the hybridisation of blotted DNA molecule. mr.Patricia Thomas, developer of the RNA blot which then became known as the northern blot actually didn't use the term. Further adding these techniques produced such terms as northwesterns (to detect protein-RNA interactions), southwesterns (protein-DNA hybridizations),  and farwesterns (protein-protein interactions) etc.
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                               
 
 
 
 
 
SCOPE-
 
 
 
The Molecular Biology field  covers a wide scope of  related to molecule or cell base involving structural and functional genomics, transcriptomics, bioinformatics, biomedicine, molecular enzymology, proteomics, molecular virology and molecular immunology, theoretical bases of genetic enginerring or biotech., physics and physical chemistry of proteins and nucleic acids. Molecular Biology exercises a multi disciplinary approach and presents the whole pattern of relevant basic research mostly in Eastern Europe. Molecular Biology publishes general interest reviews, mini-reviews, experimental and theoretical works and computational analyses in molecular and cell biology.
 
 
Opportunity  in the field of molecular biology aatract on the latest developments of cell biology. It also involves study in the field of stem cells. Graduates in Molecular Biology can find numerous jobs in many of the public and private sector organisations. Various job profiles available for graduates in molecular biology are-Farming consultant,Geneticist,Horticulturist,Molecular Biologist,Plant Explorer,Plant Biochemist,Biology Content Developer,Biological Technician,Ecologist,Botanist,Weed Scientist,Science 
Adviser,Forest Ranger etc.
 
 
 
APPLICATIONS-
 
 
 
   Molecular biology methods have tremendous value in solving wide variety of problems affecting the overall human condition. Disease control and treatment, production of new protein based products, and manipulation of living plants and animals for desired phenotypic traits are all benifitsthat are routinely addressed by the usage of molecular biology methods. The public thinks that address the application of these methods should be addressed by informed public discussion and debate. While experts can be extremely critical of the interpretation,quality, and usage of experimental results, they have a rather remarkable naturety to be non-judgmental of the relative social merits of many benifits of resaerchers research. It remains a public responsibility to be sufficiently well-informed to critically assess the merits of applied science research and participate in a communal decision-making process regarding the extent to which a new technology will be allowed to affect society.
 
 
 
Molecular biological techniques for the detection and characterisation of living microbs have revolutionised diagnostic microbiology and are now part of routine specimen processing. `Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques have led the way into this new era by allowing rapid detection of microbs that were oldly difficult or impossible to detect by traditional microbiological techniques. In addition to detection of fastidious microbs, more rapid detection by molecular methods is now possible for pathogens of public health importance. Molecular methods have now progressed beyond identification to detect antimicrobial resistance genes and provide public health information such as strain characterisation by genotyping. Treatment of certain microbs has been improved by viral resistance detection and viral load testing for the monitoring of responses to antiviral therapies. With the advent of  real-time PCR , multiplex PCR, and improvements in working through automation, the costs of molecular methods are decreasing such that the role of molecular process will further increase.
 
 
 
 
              
 
 
 
 
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