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                                                                       MOLECULAR  BIOPHYSICS
















      Biophysics, like biochemistry, uses a form of science to investigate the function of an any biological organism. But while biochemistry uses mathematics and chemistry, biophysics uses the principles of physics and chemistry. Biophysics also uses mathematical analysis and computer modeling to investigate biological functions of an any organism. Biophysics studies things on the molecular level, trying to understand how DNA ( deoxyribonucleic acid ) works and how cells interact with molecules and important components. Biophysics is available at many colleges and universities. Students have the option of pursuing a graduate degree.

Biophysics is an interdisciplinary type of science using methods of, and theories from, physics to study biological systems. Biophysics spans all levels of biological organization, from the molecular scale to whole organisms and ecosystems. Biophysical research shares significant overlap with  bioengineeringagrophysicsbiochemistrynanotechnologyand systems biology. It has been suggested as a bridge between physics and biologyMolecular biophysics typically addresses biological questions similar to those in molecular biology and biochemistry, but more quantitatively. Scientists and experts in this field conduct research concerned with understanding the interactions between the various systems of a cell, including the interactions between DNARNA (ribonucleic acid) and protein biosynthesis, as well as how these interactions are regulated. 




Muscle Biophysics


         That is the study of muscles turning energy into movement. Proteins such as actin and myosin are responsible for this. These proteins turn chemical energy into mechanical energy or  work. Actin also creates filaments that myosin can use to move, resulting in the shortening of a muscle. Other proteins create muscle tissue and cells and control their contraction. Proteins such as these are also responsible for the movement of other cells.





  •        The purpose of biophysics is attempts to answer key questions about the human body, such as how amino acids are able to fold into proteins with three-dimensional shapes and still have specific functions. Biophysics also studies the DNA(deoxyribonucleic acid) replication process and its direction to proteins. Biophysics also covers biological energies, including how outside energy such as sound,  light and odor are converted into impulses that the brain can recognize or how muscle cells convert chemical energy into mechanical force or movement.




  •      The several techniques available to study the biophysics  has by  the British Biophysical Society on the molecular level. Some of the equipment includes  Electron Microscopy, Electron Paramagnetic Resonance,Circular Dichroism Spectroscopy, Light Microscopy,X-ray Crystallography, and Neutron Scattering. Although these techniques use different type of  equipment, the goal is to study molecules by observation and analysis. Three-dimensional images are an important part of that study to understand.









       Molecular biophysics is a rapidly growing and important field of research that have an important role in elucidating the mysteries of life's molecules and their assemblies, as well as the relationship between their structure and function. Introduction to Molecular Biophysics fills an existing gap in the literature on this subject by providing the reader with the modern theoretical tools needed to understand life processes from a physical viewpoint. The authors review numerous topics of relevance to biophysics, including DNA structure,peptide chains, and function,membranes, cytoplasm, and motor proteins. Each book is richly illustrated and contains numerous examples,and references, problems that make these books useful as both an inclusive reference work and textbook.


Some of them given below-







     The syllbus describe below in two sections- 



Section A - 


Introduction:levels of molecular organization, amino acids, electrolytes, composition of primary structures of poteins, nucleic acids, structure of carbohydrates, lipids, cofactors, vitamins, and hormons. ramachandran or steric contour diagrm and potential eneargy calculation of proteins hydrogen bonding hydrophobic interactions, ionic interactions, disculphide bonds, and their role in protein structure, secondary structural elements and organization of tertiary structure of protins, Helix- coil transition and zipper model, methods for structural elucidation, X-ray crystallography. general featues and thermodynamic aspects of protein folding.


Section B -


General characteristics of nucleic acid structure, backbone rotation angles and steric hindrances conformational properties of bases, stablizing order forms stacking interactions, A, B and Z type double helices. tRNA structure, tertiary structure higher organization of DNA , proteinnucleic acid interactions, membarne potential, micelle and bilaayer formation, studies of bilayer structure and function, order disorder transitions. interforces transport across membranes ( the Nerst Planks Approch and rate theory of transport). photochemical and photobiological , phenomena mechanism of photosynthsis, vision absorption and fluorescence.






       The National Institutes of Health supported the  Molecular Biophysics Training Program. The program promotes interdisciplinary research training for students or learners witch interested in biophysical or biochemical problems of macromolecular function. However, the Training Program is not a degree-granting program, and students or learner do not apply directly to it. New students must be admitted through an individual department or interdepartmental doctoral degree (Ph. D.) program, and degrees are awarded by this same sponsoring unit. Students eligible for training grant support are nominated by their sponsoring "home" unit . The sponsoring units include departments as well as the fully interdepartmental doctoral degree program offered by the Center for Biophysics & Computational Biology.


Students or learner witch applying for admission into one of the participating graduate degree programs, and who have interests in molecular biophysics, are advised to identify themselves in their applications. Sponsoring units submit candidates for admission into the Molecular Biophysics Training Program, and students are selected on a competitive basis. Minority students are particularly encouraged to apply to The trainee's stipend is equivalent to top offers made to other incoming students. Trainees also receive a small allowance for educational expenses and some assistance towards attendance at scientific conferences. Student trainees participate in all training grant-sponsored activities throughout their studies.

Irrespective of their home unit, all trainees have full flexibility to train in the lab of any training faculty. During the first year, each trainee must complete a minimum of three laboratory rotations (5-6 weeks each), at least one of which must be outside of the sponsoring unit or witch called 'home department'. Trainees present their research at the program's annual research symposium, co-sponsored with the NIH Training Program in Molecula & Cell Biology. They organize and attend seminars or conferences in which distinguished national and international scientists and experts are invited to the University to present their work and meet with trainees. Finally, trainees participate in an informal, monthly get-together that provides an opportunity for both scientific and social exchange.









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