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                     NANOTECHNOLOGY

 

 

 

 

INTRODUCTION

 

 

      The emerging field of nano scale engineering and science has generated considerable excitement recently. This field is focused on materials, devices, structure, and process that occur on the scale of atoms or groups of atoms. The size depend is on the order of nanometers. Another common term used to describe activity and research in this field is micro electro mechanical systems (MEMS). Microarray technology allow for the parallel synthesis of large numbers of nano structural materials. This material can then be tested using the same chip based technology. These activities are focused on materials that could be useful for application in the fields of electronics, energy conversion, energy storage, catalysis, and others. New approach enables the synthesis of hundreds to thousands of material in parallel followed by testing of all of those materials at once, thus allowing for greater efficiency. Although a meter is defined by the international standard organization as ‘the length of the path travelled by light in vacuum during a time interval of 1/299 792 458 of a second’ and a nanometer is by definition as ninth power of ten of a mete. This does not dose not help scientist to communicate the nanoscale to non-scientists. It is in human nature to elate size by reference to every day objects, and the commonest definition of nanotechnology is in relation to the width of a human hair.

 

      There is commonly held belief that nanotechnology is a futuristic science. In the last 15 years over a dozen noble prizes have been awarded in nanotechnology, from the development of the scanning probe microscope (SPM), to the discovery of fullerenes. According to CMP scientific. Over 600 companies are currently active in nanotechnology, from small venture capital backed start ups to some of the world’s largest corporations such as IBM and Samsung. Governments and corporation’s world wide have spent over four billion into nanotechnology in the last year alone. many of the initial application of nanotechnology are material related such as additives for plastics nanoocarbon particles for improved steels, coating , and improved catalysts for the petrochemicals industry. All of these are technology based industries, but industries with multibillion dollar markets.

 

 

 

NANOTECHNOLOGY INDUSTRY

 

 

     Many of the companies working with nanotechnology are simply applying our knowledge of the nanoscale to existing industries weather it is improved drug delivery mechanisms for the pharmaceutical industry, or producing nanoclay particles for the plastic industry. In fact nanotechnology is an enabling technology rather than an industry in its own right. While it is possible to buy a packet of nanotechnology, a gram of nanotubes for example, it would have no value. The real value of nanotubes would be in their application with in existing industry.

 

 

SCOPE AND IMPORTANCE

 

 

     In medicine the biological medical research communities have exploited the unique properties of nanomaterial for various importances (e.g. Contrast agent for cell imaging and therapeutics for treating cancer). Terms such as a biomedical nanotechnology, bionanotechnology and nanomaedicine are used to describe this hybrid fields. Functionalities can be added to nanomaterial’s by interfacing them with biological molecules and structure.

 

    In diagnosis nanotechnology on a chip is one more dimension of lab on chip technology biological testes measuring the presence or activity of selected substances become quicker, more sensitive and more flexible when certain nanoscale particles are put to work as tags or labels.

 

    In tissue engineering nanotechnology can help to reproduce or to repair damaged tissue,. This so called tissue engineering makes use of artificially stimulated cells proliferation by using suitable nanomaterial based scaffolds and growth factors.

 

   In chemistry and environment chemicals catalysts and filtration techniques are two prominent examples where nanotechnology already plays a role. The synthesis provides the novel materials with tailored features and chemical properties, for example, nanoparticles with a distinct chemical surrounding, or specific optical properties.

 

 

CURRENT STATE

 

 

      Research into nanomaterials spans a significance spectrum of areas. Advanced material companies are producing innovative products in areas such as coating, industrial powders, chemicals, awl carbon nanotubes. Today, real world application of nanotechnology exists in commercial business. About two dozen serious applications of nanomaterials and process have been fielded ranging from non scuff tile to high strength brackets for running boards on vehicles to high temperature protective material for spacecraft. While nanomaterials are a significant portion of today’s focus, several other areas are equally as promising.

 

 

 

PROBLEMS WITH NANOTECHNOLOGY

 

 

     If nano do all that, what’s the problem these are at least two problems and their are big ones.

 

  • Technology control at the nano scale goes hand in hand with corporate control at the nano scale. Remember that almost vas soon as scientists figured out how to manipulate life through genetic engineering corporation figure out how to monopolize.

 

  • Convergence. Scientists and governments in the US and Europe have a strategy to mirage the science based on the unity of nature and ‘material unity at the nano scale’. The logic behind the push to converge diverse technologies- such as informatics, biotech, nanotech, and cognitive science.

 

 

 

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