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                    PLANT BIOTECHNOLOGY

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

              

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

INTRODUCTION

    

    

    Similar to biotechnology, plant biotechnology may be define as generation of useful products and services from plant cells, tissues and often organs. such cells, tissues and organs are either continuously maintained in vitro (lab.)or they pass through a variable in vitro phase to enable regeneration from them of complete plantlets witch are ultimately transferred to the field.Therefore,plant tissue culture forms an integral part of any plant biotechnology activity. The various objectives achieved by plant biotechnology may be summarized as under.

 

 

1. Production of difficult to produce hybrids (embryo rescue, in vitro pollination).

2. Virus elimination (thermo-,cryo-,or chemo- therapy coupled with meristem culture.

3. Useful bio-chemical production (large scale cell culture).

4. Rapid development of homozygous lines by producing haploids (anther and ovary culture, interspecific hybridization).

5. Creation of genome map and use of molecular markers to assist conventional breeding efforts

   

 

     Some of the these objectives, e.g. biochemical production require continuous in vitro  culture of  cells for product generation. in such and certain other cases,e.g. rapid colonel multiplication , haploid production, etc. a scaling up of the culture operations becomes essential. Scaling up may often utilize fermenters witch involve engineering disciplines like process engineering, etc. the products from most activities, e.g. micropropagation,haploid production ,etc. are plants that are ultimately to be used for enhancing agricultural/horticultural production . Therefore, such plant often must be subjected to rigorous evolution to ascertain their commercial value. in many situations ,they have to be utilized in suitable breeding programmes to develop a commercially utilizable plant variety. This is particularly true for activities aiming at genetic modification, haploid production,hybrid rescue, etc. therefore, the plant developed through a biotechnological activity should have (1) a useful feature or feature, (2) must be fertile, and (3) the biotechnological activities must be suitably linked with active and efficient plant breeding and field evolution programmes in order to produce a reliable and commercially attractive product.   

  

  Plants are the key to life on earth as they directly supply 90% of human caloric intake, and 80% of the protein intake the remainder being derived from animal products, although these animals have also derived their nutrition from plants. Of the three thousands plant species witch have been used as food by man, the world now depends mainly on around twenty crops species for the majority of its calories, with 50% being contributed by eight species of cerials.minerals and vitamins are supplied by a further thirty species of fruits and vegetables. most important of the staple foods are the cereals,particulrly wheat and rice with more than one third of al cultivated land used to produce these two crops.

 

 

 

 

                                                                                                                               

 

 

 

 

HISTORY AND REVIEW

 

 

     During the 1800s the cell theory, witch status that the cell is the basic structural unit of all living creatures, was very quick to gain acceptance. However, the second portion of the cell theory status that these structural units are distinct and potentially totipotent physiological and developmental unit, failed to gain universal acceptance. The skepticism associated with the latter part was because of the inability of scientist such as Schleiden and Schwann to demonstrate totipotancy in their laboratories. It was in 1902 that the well-known German plant physiologist, Gottied Haberlandt (1854-1945), attempted to cultivate plant tissue culture cells in vitro. He is regarded as the father of plant tissue culture. He clearly stated the desirability of culturing the isolated vegetative cells of higher plants.

 

 

 

   Molliard in 1921 demonstrated limited success with the cultivation of plant embryos and subsequently Kotte (1922a,b), a student of haberlandt in Germany and, independently Robbins (1922a, b) were successful in the establishment of excised plant root tips in-vitro. However, in 1934, the pioneering work of growing excised roots of tomato in-vitro for periods of time without theoretical limits was demonstrated by white (1934). Initially, white used a medium containing inorganic salts, yeast extract and sucrose, but later yeast extracted was replaced by three B-vitamins viz. pyridoxine, thiamine and nicotinic acid . in the same year, Gautheret was engaged in experimentation with excised root tips and the cultivation of cambial tissue removed under aseptic conditions from Saliz capraea, populas nigra and other trees on Knops’ solution containing glucose and cysteine hydrochloride and recorded that they proliferated for a few months.

 

 

 

 

PLANT BIOTECH IN BRIEF

     

     

    Plant biotechnology is a major field of biotechnology witch is completed in a deep description. There are many several points to study plant biotech in briefly.-

  

    Introduction to cell and tissue culture, tissue culture as a technique to produce novel plants and hybrids. Tissue culture media (composition and preparation). Initiation and maintenance of callus and suspension culture, singal cell clones, organogenesis, somatic embryogenesis, transfer and establishment of whole plant in soil. Shoot tip culture, rapid colonel propagation, and production of virus free plants.  Embryo culture and embryo rescue, protoplast isolation, culture, and fusion, selection of hybrid cells and regeneration of hybrids plants. Symmetric and asymmetric hybrids, cybrids. Anther, pollen, and ovary culture for production of haploid plants and homozygous lines. Cryopreservation, slow growth and DNA banking for germplasm conservation. Basic techniques in r-DNA technology.

 

 

     Plant transformation technology: basis of tumor formation , hairy root,  features of Ti and Ri plasmids , mechanisms of  DNA transfer , role of virulence genes, use of Ti and Ri as vectors, binary vectors ,use of 35 s and other promoters ,genetic markers, use of reporter genes, reporter genes with introns, use of scaffold attachment regions, methods of nuclear transformations, viral vectors and their applications, multiple gene transfer, vector less or direct DNA transfer , particle bombardment ,electroporation, microinjection, transformations in monocots. Transgene stability and gene silencing. Application of plant transformation for productivity and performance herbicide resistance , phosphoinothricin, glyphosate, sufonyl urea,atrazine, insect resistance,Bt genes, non Bt-like protease inhibitors, alpha amylase inhibitors,  virus resistance, coat protin mediated, nucleocapsid gene disease resistance, chitinase, 1-3 bita glucanase, RIP, antifungal proteins, thionins, PR proteins, nematode resistance, abiotic stress, post harvest losses, long shelf life of fruits and flowers, use of ACC synthase, polyglacturanase, ACC oxidase, male sterile lines, bar and barnase systems, carbohydrate compositions and storage, ADP glucose pyrophosphates.

 

 

    Chloroplast transformation: advantages, vectors, success with tobacco and potato. Metabolic engineering and industrial products: plant secondary metabolites, control mechanisms and manipulation of phenylpropanoid pathway, alkaloids, industrial enzymes, bio-degradable plastics, polyhydroxy butyrate, therapeutic proteins, lysosomal enzymes, antibodies, edible vaccines, purification strategies, oleosin partitioning technology. Conventional plant breeding, molecular market- aided Br4eeding: RFLP maps, linkage analysis, RAPD markers, STS, microsatellites, SCAR (sequence characterized amplified region), SSCP (single strand conformation polymorphism), AFLP, QTL, map based cloning, molecular marker assisted selection. Arid and semi arid plant biotechnology. Green house and green-home technology.

 

 

 

 

            

 

 

 

 

 

IMPORTANCE

 

    

   Plant biotechnology has rapidly emerged as an area of activity having a marked realized as well as potential impact on virtually all domains of human welfare, ranging from food processing , protecting the environment, to human health. As a result, it now play a very important role in employment, production and productivity, trade, economics and economy, human health, and the quality of human life throughout the world. This is clearly reflected in the emergence of numerous biotechnology companies throughout the world, including India, and the movement of noted scientists, including Nobel laureates, to some of these companies. The total volume of trade in plant biotechnology products is increasing sharply every year, and it is expected to soon become the major contributor to world trade. Many commentators are confident that the 21st century will be the century of plant biotechnology, just as the 20th century is the era of electronics.

 

    In agriculture, rapid and economic colonel multiplication of fruits and forest trees, production of virus free plants of colonel crops, creation of novel genetic variations somoclonal variations, and transfer of novel and highly valuable gene through genetic engineering have opened up exciting possibilities in crop production, protection and improvement in plant biotechnology.

 

 

 

 

SCOPE AND FUTURE

 

  

   Genetic engineering in plant biotechnology stimulated hopes for both therapeutic proteins, drugs and biological organisms themselves, such as seeds, pesticides, engineered yeast, and modified human cells for treating genetic disease. The field of genetic engineering remains a heated topic of discussion in today’s society with the advent of gene therapy, stem cell research, cloning, and genetically modified food. Plant biotechnology is the applied science and has made advances in two major areas, viz., molecular biology and production of industrially important biochemicals. the scientists are now diverting themselves toward plant biotechnological companies this has caused the development of many plant biotechnological industries. In USA alone more than 225 companies have been established and successfully working, like biogen, cetus, Genentech, hybritech, etc. in world USA, japan and many countries of Europe are leaders in plant biotechnological researchers encouraged by industrialists.

 

 

The main emphasis in modern plant biotechnology is the production of transgenic plants. The first use of gene technology to bring about changes in plant becomes possible at the beginning of the 1980s, around ten years after the first experiment with bacteria. The market value of transgenic plant is estimated to be in excess of 2 billion Euros, according to the calculation of the German Federal Office for the environment. Scope for development in diverse agro-climatic regions, forest wealth, different climate zones, scientific talent. There are several methods developed in last 3 decades for vegetative multiplication of plant species involving auxiliary budding, adventitious budding, somatic embryogenesis and organogenesis from callus cultures. In fact, the genetic stability of the plant copies produced is likely to vary according to the procedure chosen. However, these methods have certain limitations.

 

 

 

       

 

 

 

PROBLEMS

 

 

   Development and use of any technology is dependable on infra-structural facility and simultaneous development of other related technologies. Plant biotechnology requires infra structure like electricity, air-conditioned rapid transport system, skilled labor and related biotechnology like innovative and novel packaging material, plastic ware and glass appliances etc. following are major hurdles-

 

  1. Industry is a capital intensive (require elaborate establishment money).
  2. Seasonal activity with peak demand; delivery of plant material at one time requires large facility witch may be under utilized at other times.
  3. High production cost applicable to selected crop plant with established protocols for multiplication.
  4. Management of personnel and organization of work schedule in chain oriented manner.
  5. Contamination problems add a big cost factor.
  6. Somoclonal variations at large multiplication rate.

 

 

In context of India, on export scene, lack of variety of packing material at affordable price, high air freights, unsuitable air connections, lengthy phytosanitory, custom and export documentation formalities make this non-traditional, highly perishable export commodity less attractive as compared to potential it has. However, recently the government of India has set up suitable cargo-handling cold storage facility at new Delhi and Bangalore for export of biotech product.

 

 

 

 

 

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