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         PLANT SECONDRY METABOLITES

 

  

 

 

 

 

INTRODUCTION

    

 

     A plant cell products are two types of metabolites; primary metabolites involved directly in growth and metabolism, viz., carbohydrates, lipid and proteins and secondary metabolites considered as end products of primary metabolism and are in general not involved in metabolic activity, viz. alkaloids, phenolics, essential oils, steroids etc. primary metabolites are produced as result of photosynthesis and these products are further involved in the cell component synthesis. in general primary metabolites obtained from higher plants for commercial use are high volume, low-value bulk chemicals. They are primarily used as industrial raw materials, food or food additives, e.g. Vegetable oils, fatty acids, and carbohydrate. These material cost Indian rate 15-150 per kg and are readily available in large quantities.secondry metabolites are compounds biosynthetically derived from the primary metabolites but more limited in occurrence in the plant kingdom, and may be restricted to a particular taxonomic group. As mentioned above, secondary metabolites arte mostly accumulated by plant cells in smaller quantities than primary metabolites these secondary metabolites are synthesized in specialized cells at particular developmental stages making their extraction and purification difficult. The medicinal plants rich in secondary plants products are termed as ‘medicinal or officinal’ plants. These secondary metabolites or products exert in general profound physiological effects on the mammalian system and, thus are known as active principals of plant. the physiological effects of these active principles is used for curing aliments and therefore, these are drugs of plant origin or natural drugs. The use of crude drugs of plant origin (unpurified preparation of active principles, plant extract or sometimes powered plant material) is used in the Indian system of medicine or “ayurveda”. A large number of drugs of plant origin are still used in western medicine.

 

 

 

HISTORY

  

 

       Secondary metabolite contain organic and inorganic moiety that concept given by A. Kossel in 1891. Alkaloids have been known to man for several centauries. Morphine, alkaloids, of latex of the opium poppy was isolated by F.W. sertuner in1806. Latter other alkali-like active principle was isolated and indentified.E.g. narcotine in 1817 by Robiquet, emetine in 1817 by Pelletier and Magnedic and so on. The term ‘alkaloid’ was coined by w.meibner, a German pharmacist, meaning “alkali like”. Latter it was demonstrated that the alkalinity was due to the presence of a basic nitrogen atom. The first alkaloids to be synthesized was coniine in 1886 by Ladenburg, witch had already been isolated in 1827.

 

 

PLANT SECONDRY METABOLITES IN BRIEF-

 

 

      Secondary metabolite is a major field of biotechnology witch is completed in a deep description. There are many several points to study Secondary metabolite in briefly.-

 

 

     Secondary plant products in nature and their occurrence, types and uses. Basic tools and techniques used in isolation and separation. Production in vitro optimization, selection effect of metabolism on secondary metabolite production, production under stress factors. Production of alkaloids steroids and saponins. Mechanism and control by different factors, detoxification of secondary metabolites. Production of metabolites by bioconversion genetic transformation for production of secondary metabolite large scale production in bioreactor. Commercial production of secondary metabolites using cell culture, bioreactors, immobilizes cells, biotransformation, applications and limitation, cryopreservation and ex-situ conservation of germplasm. Microbial secondary metabolites, their occurrence types and uses. Source and types of antitumor compounds , food additives and insecticides, products obtain in traditional medicinal system and their significance in plant biotechnology. Biotechnological; approaches on production of second metabolites eg. ginkolides, from cell culture of ginkgo biloba. Used of immobilized cell system for the production of industrially important chemicals. Genetic regulation of metabolites. Gene expression in response to environmental stimulation, regulation of gene expression analysis of metabolic control and the structure metabolic networks.

 

 

CLASSIFICATION

 

 

     Secondary metabolites derived from the primary metabolites so they have more complexity to primary metabolites. They classified in many groups.

 

 

1.Alkaloids

2.Plant amines

3.Phenolic compounds- flavanoides.

4.Sapogenines- c-27 steriods

5.Isoprenoides and terpenoides

6.Polyisoprenes and rubber like substances

7.Rare amino acids others.

 

 

 

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