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                             SPACE BIOTECHNOLGY

 

 

 

 

 

 

INTRODUCTION

 

 

    The space biotechnology department was cretd in the space research institute, Bulgarian Academy of sceince in 1987 by Dr. Tania Lvanova with the basicc perpose to develop an automated system for precise mesurement and control of envrionmental parameters in order to provide optimal biotechnology for higher plant growing under microgravity.  life on earth developed in the presence and under the constant influence of gravity. Thus, gravity research is the fundamental question about conditions of life onlly neglect the importance of gravity on biological systems and only the facts that research platforms are rare and that access to altered gravity is limited, reduce t earth. It is possible that the molecular and cellular structure of life on Earth may require gravity for survival, either in individual or in evolutionary terms, and it is therefore possible that exactly such gravity-dependent or gravity–sensing mechanisms will keep us dependent from the gravity field of Earth. No one can reahe speed of progress in gravity research compared to other disciplines. during 1985, a prelimenry experiment SUBTRAT was conducted onboard SALUT-7 Orbital station in order to choose optimal nutritive medium for the plants.Technically, we are able to put ourselves in space ships for weeks up to months, and most probably, in the first half of this century, mankind will be able to fly to Mars. But until now there is only limited knowledge about the biological and biomedical effects of weightlessness on organisms and humans, especially on the cellular and molecular level, where therapeutic or preventive strategies could be developed.

 

 

 

 

SPACE BIOTECHNOLOGY RESEARCH

 

 

    Several research laboratories around the world are involved in studies that may be useful to existing space programs. The results of these studies can help us understand biochemical mechanisms here on earth, while also contributing to the success of space station programs. Research at the Department of Environmental Biology, University of Guelph (Ontario, Canada) has contributed to programs of NASA, the Canadian Space Agency and the European Space Agency. In U of Guelph's Controlled Environment Systems Research Facility, plants and micro-organisms grown in low-pressure and microgravity conditions are studied for potential use in long-distance space missions. Other projects investigate biofiltration techniques, hydroponics and nutrient cycling (to assist agricultural practices in space), and fibre optic lighting systems.

 

 

DESIGN SPACE BIOTECHNOLOGY

 

 

   The concept of "design space" has been proposed in the ICH Q8 guideline and is gaining momentum in its application in the biotech industry. It has been defined as "the multidimensional combination and interaction of input variables (e.g., material attributes) and process parameters that have been demonstrated to provide assurance of quality." This paper presents a stepwise approach for defining process design space for a biologic product. A case study, involving P. pastoris fermentation, is presented to facilitate this. First, risk analysis via Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) is performed to identify parameters for process characterization. Second, small-scale models are created and qualified prior to their use in these experimental studies. Third, studies are designed using Design of Experiments (DOE) in order for the data to be amenable for use in defining the process design space. Fourth, the studies are executed and the results analyzed for decisions on the criticality of the parameters as well as on establishing process design space. For the application under consideration, it is shown that the fermentation unit operation is very robust with a wide design space and no critical operating parameters. The approach presented here is not specific to the illustrated case study. It can be extended to other biotech unit operations and processes that can be scaled down and characterized at small scale.

    

 

 

 

 

 

 

SPACE AGRICULTURE BIOTECHNOLOGY RESEARCH

 

 

      Biological systems act differently under the low pressure, low gravity conditions found in outer space. For example, in 2007, scientists observed that microorganisms that had spent 12 days in orbit had enhanced pathogenicity. Salmonella, bacteria that cause food poisoning, were significantly more potent when used to infect mice, than control organisms kept on earth. In-depth proteomic studies, revealed a number of differences between the space-bugs and earth-bound organisms. A suspect protein, called Hfq, that may be responsible for the increased virulence, was identified.

biotechnology is likely to be one of the first microgrvity science payloads abroad space startion. the biotchnology progrmme has several science payloads that grow protien crystals. these are analysed on earth to determinethe moecular structure so so scentists can design drug therapies that target a specific problem with few or no side effects.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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